Triticum turgidum

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Triticum turgidum L.

alt=Description of Triticum durum.jpg picture.
a durum wheat field
Order Poales
Family Gramineae
Genus Triticum

2n = 28, genome AABB

Origin : Fertile Crescent

wild and cultivated

English {{{english}}}
French {{{french}}}



Description

Classification

Triticum turgidum L. (1753)

The wild form is Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebn.) Thell. (1918) [syn.: Triticum dicoccoides (Körn. ex Asch. & Graebn.) Schweinf. (1908)].

Triticum turgidum subsp. carthlicum

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski) A. & D. Löve (1961)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum carthlicum Nevski (1934)
    • Triticum persicum Vav. (1919) non Aitch. & Hemsl. (1886)
    • Triticum turgidum L. subsp. carthlicum (Nevski) MacKey (1966)
  • English: Persian wheat
  • French: blé de Perse
  • German: persischer Weizen
  • Spanish: trigo de Persia

A naked bearded wheat, cultivated in the Caucasus, eastern Turkey, Irak and Iran.

Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum

fr:Amidonnier blanc (Vilmorin, 1880)

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. dicoccum (Schrank) Thell. (1918)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum dicoccon Schrank (1789)
    • Triticum dicoccum Schübler (1818)
  • English: emmer
  • French: amidonnier, emmer
  • Ethiopia: aja

see more European names

A hulled wheat. The first domesticated form in the western half of the Fertile Crescent in 7800-7500 BC. It soon became the most important cereal in the Near-East, and spread eastward to Mesopotamia, the Caucasus, Pakistan and northern India. Westward, it spread to the Balkans, western Mediterraeans areas and the Danubian region, where it remained dominant during the Bronze age. Southwards, it spread to Egypt and Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, it remained up to now an important and diversified crop. In other areas, it was progressively replaced by naked wheats. Ancient Greeks knew it as zea, zeia or olura, and Romans far or ador.

Triticum turgidum subsp. durum

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn. (1899)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum durum Desf. (1798)
    • Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turgidum convar. durum (Desf.) MacKey (1966)
    • Triticum parvicoccum Kislev (1980) (form with small grains)
  • English: durum wheat, macaroni wheat
  • French: blé dur

see more European names

This naked wheat is known from the 7th millenary in Syria and Turkey. It soon spread to Greece and western Mediterranean areas, and quite late to Egypt (300 BC). It has become the main wheat cultivated in Mediterranean areas. It is difficult to distinguish it in texts from bread wheat, although puros in Greek and triticum in Latin meant above all durum wheat.

Triticum turgidum subsp. ispahanicum

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. ispahanicum (Heslot)  ?

  • synonym: Triticum ispahanicum Heslot (1958)
  • English: Ispahan emmer
  • French: blé d'Ispahan, amidonnier d'Ispahan

A hulled wheat with long glumes, known only from Iran.

Triticum turgidum subsp. paleocolchicum

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. paleocolchicum (Menabde) A. & D. Löve (1961)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum karamyschevii Nevski. (1935)
    • Triticum turgidum L. subsp. paleocolchicum (Menabde) MacKey (1966)
  • English: Georgian emmer, Kolchic emmer
  • French: blé de Colchide
  • German: kolchischer Emmer

A hulled wheat with a zigzag rachis, known only from Georgia.

Triticum turgidum subsp. polonicum

Blé de Pologne (Vilmorin, 1880)

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. polonicum (L.) A. & D. Löve (1961)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum polonicum L. (1762)
    • Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turgidum convar. polonicum (L.) MacKey (1966)
  • English: Polish wheat
  • French: blé de Galice, blé de Pologne
  • German: polnischer Weizen, Gommer, Riesenroggen
  • Spanish: trigo de Polonia
  • Portuguese: trigo de Polonia
  • Italian: frumento di Polonia

A wheat with big spike and long glumes. It occurs sporadically in the Medierranean, the Caucasus, central Asia to India, and Ethiopia. It has never been cultivated in Poland, and should better be called Galician wheat. Linneaus is thought to have confused Galicia (a region of Spain) with Galicia (a region of Poland and Ukraine).

Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turanicum (Jakubc.) A. & D. Löve (1961)

  • synonyms:
    • Triticum orientale Percival (1921) non M.-Bieb. (1808)
    • Triticum turanicum Jakubc. (1947)
    • Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turgidum convar. turanicum (Jakubc.) MacKey (1966)

Triticum turgidum subsp. turgidum

fr:Poulard blanc lisse (Vilmorin, 1880)
fr:Blé de miracle (Vilmorin, 1880)

Triticum turgidum L. subsp. turgidum

  • synonym: Triticum turgidum L. (1753)
  • English: rivet wheat, cone wheat
  • French: blé poulard, touselle / blé miracle, blé des pharaons
  • German: Rauh-Weizen, welscher Weizen, englischer Weizen / Wunder-Weizen
  • Spanish: trigo redondillo / trigo del milagro, trigo de los faraones
  • Italian: frumento grosso

Cultivars

Descriptions and drawings of the cultivars known in Western Europe in 1880 and 1909 (2 dicoccum, 5 durum, 1 polonicum and 8 turgidum) are found in Les meilleurs blés.

History

see Candolle's articles for naked and hulled wheats.

Uses

References

  • Zohary Daniel, Hopf Maria & Weiss Ehud, 2012. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Fourth Edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press. XVI-243 p.

Links