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title page of 3rd edition, 1868
François-Joseph Cazin is the last French physician who cured farmers and poors only with the help of local plants. His Traité pratique et raisonné des plantes médicinales indigènes had no less than five editions from 1850 to 1886, the last ones being updated by his son.
This book is still the best synthesis on the subject. Cazin allies a detailed presentation of the clinical cases he cured with a bibliographical review which is astonishing by its breadth, as it goes from the physicians (Dioscorides, Gallen, Hippocrates, Arnaud de Villeneuve) and botanists (Mattioli, Dodoneus...) of Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Enlightenment, up to the most recent researches in the scientific pharmacopaeia of his century.
Cazin was constantly complaining about such physicians who were only fascinated by exotic medicines proposed by pharmacists, and that the common people could not afford. In his book, we see the respect he had for "bonnes femmes" and country priests who used traditional remedies. At the same time, he constantly warns against the dangers of identification or dosage errors and the inefficiency or toxicity of some medicines. From this point of view, reading this book will be useful for those who, today, tend to consider that everything natural must be intrinsically good.
All the book has been put on line at Pl@ntUse (in its 1868 version) and structured by species. It can be accessed either through the category Cazin 1868, or by the links placed in the species pages, or by the index of modern scientific names or of French names.
The reader is also invited to read the excellent presentation by Pierre Lieutaghi, expert in ethnobotany.
- Cazin, François-Joseph, 1868. Traité pratique et raisonné des plantes médicinales indigènes : avec un atlas de 200 planches lithographiées. 3e édition, revue et augmentée par le docteur Henri Cazin. Paris, P. Asselin. 2 tomes dont 1 de pl. en 1 vol., XXVIII-1189-XL p.
6 March 2017
The plant of the month: la dong
Some weeks ago, I discovered in a Chinese supermarket in Montpellier some packs of big leaves evidently intended to wrap food for cooking. I only had a name to identify it, la dong.
The identification resulted very quick. Typing la dong on a search engine led me to the page Lá dong on the Vietnamese Wikipedia. I had no need to read Vietnamese, as plants fortunately bear a Latin name, and Vietnamese names were written in bold characters. An exploration of images in Wikimedia Commons allowed me to see which traditional meals were wrapped in such a way before being boiled, such as bánh chưng.
Bánh chưng, a glutinous rice cake, with mung bean and other ingredients
It is a Marantaceae, Stachyphrynium placentarium, the broad leaves of which are 25 to 55 cm long. "Leave" is said lá in Vietnamese. We can also find in supermarkets the leaves of Maranta arundinacea, conditioned in rolls.
You will find the result of my search in the page Stachyphrynium placentarium. No less than 18 species are used worldwide to wrap food : (Feuilles pour papillotes).
This search illustrates one of the best aspects of Internet (and Wikipedia in particular), which allows to get acquainted with the diversity of world human cultures.
Pages have been created only in French for the moment, due to lack of time. You can help us translating!
2018, March 13
- Why is seringat the French name of Philadelphus coronarius, whereas lilac bears the name Syringa ? My perplexity doubled when I read that this name came from the use of hollow branchlets to make… seringes ! This was the beginning of a long etymological search, that we detail in our Etymological dictionary. But this quest ended up in an enigma.
Renaissance botanists used to group several plants with frangrant flowers under the name Syringa. For instance, Bauhin in his Pinax (1623) distinguishes Syringa cærulea, which is lilac, Syringa vulgaris; Syringa alba, which is seringat (mock orange), Philadelphus coronarius; and Syringa Arabica foliis mali arantii', which is sambac, Jasminum sambac. It seems in fact that the name Syringa was first applied to the mock orange, but Linnaeus decided another way. This answers the first question.
As to the second question, you must know that the etymon of medieval Latin syringa is Greek σῦριγξ, -ιγγος - surinx, - ingos, which meant in ancient Greek "flute" or "fistula". In medieval Latin, this "flute" or "pipe" came to designate a "seringe". But in fact, we must not understand our hypodermical or intravenous seringes. Every pipe through wich a liquid was pushed was called a syringa, which applies to seringes for rectum or uretra enema !
The object size fits indeed more, but it seems that this meaning is not the right one. Tabernaemontanus may give us the right explanation in 1625 in his Neuw Vollkommentlich Kreuterbuch : "the branchlets can be used as a whistle (or flute), by removing the marrow". This explanation is highly plausible. What remains is to check it experimentally. If you have a lilac or a mock orange in your garden, cut off a branchlet, scoop out the soft heart, et blow into it to see (or hear) the result. Give us then the answer on the ethnobotany forum of Tela Botanica.
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