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Lablab purpureus (PROSEA)

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== Description ==
*A bushy or a climbing and branching, pubescent herbaceous perennial, often grown as an annual, up to 6 m tall, with a well developed tap-root with many laterals and well developed adventitious roots. *Leaves alternate, trifoliolate; leaflets broadly ovate, 5-15 cm x 4-15 cm, entire, subglabrous or soft hairy. *Inflorescences stiff axillary racemes with many flowers; peduncle 4-23 cm long, often compressed, glabrescent; rachis 2-24 cm long; flowers arising 1-5 together from tubercles on rachis; pedicels *Pedicels short, square, sparsely pubescent; flowers white, pink, red or purple; stamens diadelphous (9 + 1); ovary sessile, 10 mm long, finely pubescent; style abruptly upturned, 8 mm long; stigma capitate, glandular. *Pods variable in shape and colour, flat or inflated, 5-20 cm x 1-5 cm, straight or curved, usually with 3-6 ovoid seeds of varying colour and size.
== Growth and development ==Germination is epigeal and normally takes 5 days. Seed remains viable for 2-3 years and on average 85-95 % germinate. Growth period varies from 75 to 300 days. Improved cultivars start fruiting 60-65 days after sowing and continue for 90-100 days. Early-maturing cultivars that can be grown all year round produce pods 60 days after sowing and continue up to 120 days. Mature seeds are harvested 150-210 days after sowing, depending upon cultivar and time of sowing. In India, short-day cultivars start flowering 42-330 days after sowing, depending on the sowing date. The flowers are mainly cross-pollinated.
== Other botanical information ==The variability of lablab is great; many cultivars exist. Many subclassifications of the species can be found in the literature. Some distinguish subspecies, others varieties. For cultivated plants, the distinction of cultivar (cv.) groups seems most appropriate.|- Cv. group Lablab (widely distributed): mature seeds with the long axis at right angles to the suture; pods dehiscent or indehiscent; seeds not longer than 1/3 - 3/4 of the width of the mature pod;|- Cv. group Ensiformis (South-East Asia, East Africa): mature seeds with long axis more or less oblique to the suture, nearly filling the mature pod; pods indehiscent; when young, difficult to distinguish from cv. group Lablab;|- Cv. group Bengalensis (South Asia, East Africa): mature seeds with long axis parallel to the suture, more or less filling the mature pod, gibbous dorsally and at base; pods indehiscent.
Ecology * Cv. group Lablab is a short-day plant. It requires high temperatures to grow well (18-30 °Cwidely distributed). Minimum temperature for growth is 3 °C. Its frost tolerance is low: mature seeds with the long axis at right angles to the suture; pods dehiscent or indehiscent; light frosts damage the leaves but do seeds not kill the plants. It prefers rainfall at 750-2500 mmlonger than 1/year. Once established (23 -3 months after sowing), lablab is drought-tolerant. It has a deep root system which can make use /4 of residual soil moisture. It is reported to grow in areas with rainfall at 200-2500 mm/year. Plants do not tolerate standing brackish water or waterlogging. In India and Burma, the plants are often grown on exposed sandy river banks. Provided drainage is good, the plant is extremely tolerant width of soil texture, growing in deep sands to heavy clays, pH ranging from 5-7.8. Lablab prefers the lower altitudes but is grown as a dry-land crop up to 2000 m in the tropics.mature pod;
Propagation Propagation is by seed at 7* Cv. group Ensiformis (South-10 kg/haEast Asia, up East Africa): mature seeds with long axis more or less oblique to 5 cm deep in a preferably well prepared seed-bed. Lablab can establish itself after being broadcast into roughly ploughed landthe suture, if nearly filling the seed is covered mature pod; pods indehiscent; when young, difficult to some extent. As a field crop, lablab is usually sown in rows, either as a sole crop (rows 1 m apart) or intercropped with a cereal, e.g. with maize, rows 80 cm apart. In India, it is invariably grown with Eleusine coracana. Inoculation with cowpea- type Rhizobium strains is advised, if lablab has not been grown recentlydistinguish from cv. group Lablab is only grown by smallholders.;
Husbandry Weed control during the early stages of growth may be necessary* Cv. Recently group Bengalensis (South Asia, East Africa): mature seeds with long axis parallel to the use of pre-emergence herbicides such as chlorambensuture, chlorthal dephenamidmore or less filling the mature pod, trifluralin gibbous dorsally and dinoseb has been suggested. Generally no fertilizer is applied on fertile soils. In poor sandy soils, molybdenized superphosphate at 250-500 kg/ha and some potash is advised. In India, garden cultivars are heavily manured, frequently irrigated and supported for climbing. They are sown in pits and thinned to 4 vines after 1 month. Lablab is sometimes grown as a cover crop in rotation with sorghum and cotton. In orchards, lablab forms a good organic mulch when cut often. It can also produce a good yield of hay, which is easily cured through its low moisture content. It also produces good silage, especially when mixed with sorghumbase; pods indehiscent.
Diseases and pests Pod== Ecology ==Lablab is a short-boring larvae are day plant. It requires high temperatures to grow well (18-30 °C). Minimum temperature for growth is 3 °C. Its frost tolerance is low; light frosts damage the most serious pests of leaves but do not kill the plants. It prefers rainfall at 750-2500 mm/year. Once established (2-3 months after sowing), lablab bean. Adisura atkinsoni is particularly troublesomedrought-tolerant. That pest It has been controlled experimentally by strain HB-III a deep root system which can make use of Bacterium cereus varresidual soil moisture. thuringensisIt is reported to grow in areas with rainfall at 200-2500 mm/year. Plants do not tolerate standing brackish water or waterlogging. In additionIndia and Burma, the gram caterpillar, Heliothis armigeraplants are often grown on exposed sandy river banks. Provided drainage is good, the plume mothplant is extremely tolerant of soil texture, Exelastis atomosagrowing in deep sands to heavy clays, and the spotted podborer, Maruca testulalis, are of considerable economic significancepH ranging from 5-7. Insect infestation during storage is particularly caused by bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus spp8., which also attack Lablab prefers the lower altitudes but is grown as a dry-land crop up to 2000 m in the field. Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, can cause serious crop losses; spraying with zineb or captan is reported to give reasonable control. Leaf-spot, caused by Cercospora dolichi, and powdery mildew, Leveillula taurica var. macrospora, may also be troublesome and are controlled by spraying with Bordeaux mixturetropics.
Harvesting The green pods are picked == Propagation ==Propagation is by hand when they have reached a reasonable size, usually when the seeds are three-quarters ripe. They are generally picked from the plants seed at intervals of 37-4 days10 kg/ha, cleaned and graded for size, before being packed up to 5 cm deep in baskets for the marketa preferably well prepared seed-bed. In many cultivarsLablab can establish itself after being broadcast into roughly ploughed land, if the pods mature in succession on the stem and shatter once they are ripe. For seed productionis covered to some extent. As a field crop, the pods are frequently picked by hand as soon lablab is usually sown in rows, either as they ripea sole crop (rows 1 m apart) or intercropped with a cereal, until the plants reach full maturity and the major proportion of the remaining pods has ripenede. At that stageg. with maize, the entire plant rows 80 cm apart. In India, it is cut close to the ground invariably grown with a sickle and the vines left to dry for a few days before threshingEleusine coracana. Inoculation with cowpea- type Rhizobium strains is advised, if lablab has not been grown recently. Lablab is only grown by smallholders.
Yield The average yield == Husbandry ==Weed control during the early stages of green pods growth may be necessary. Recently the use of pre-emergence herbicides such as chloramben, chlorthal dephenamid, trifluralin and dinoseb has been suggested. Generally no fertilizer is 2600applied on fertile soils. In poor sandy soils, molybdenized superphosphate at 250-4500 500 kg/haand some potash is advised. In India, garden cultivars are heavily manured, frequently irrigated and of seed supported for climbing. They are sown in pits and thinned to 4 vines after 1 month. Lablab is 450 kg/ha if sometimes grown as intercrop and up to 1460 kg/ha a cover crop in sole croppingrotation with sorghum and cotton. Fodder yields are 25-40 t/haIn orchards, lablab forms a good organic mulch when cut often. It can also produce a good yield of hay, which is easily cured through its low moisture content. It also produces good silage, especially when mixed with sorghum.
Handling after harvest Storage at 0-2 °C == Diseases and a relative humidity of 85pests ==Pod-90 % is reported to extend boring larvae are the shelf-life most serious pests of the green pods to a maximum lablab bean. Adisura atkinsoni is particularly troublesome. That pest has been controlled experimentally by strain HB-III of 21 days Bacterium cereus var. thuringensis. In addition, the gram caterpillar, Heliothis armigera, the plume moth, Exelastis atomosa, and the spotted podborer, Maruca testulalis, are of considerable economic significance. Insect infestation during storage is particularly caused by bruchid beetles, Callosobruchus spp., which also attack the shelled fresh beans up to 7 dayscrop in the field. After drying and cleaningAnthracnose, mature seeds are storedcaused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, can cause serious crop losses; usually earthenware spraying with zineb or metallic containers are used in Southcaptan is reported to give reasonable control. Leaf-East Asiaspot, caused by Cercospora dolichi, and the seeds powdery mildew, Leveillula taurica var. macrospora, may also be covered troublesome and are controlled by spraying with a 5-cm protective layer of sand. Harvesting pods as soon as the seed is ripe reduces bruchid infestation; reduction of the moisture content to below 10 % is more effectiveBordeaux mixture.
Genetic resources There is wide genetic variation in == Harvesting ==The green pods are picked by hand when they have reached a reasonable size, usually when the tropics and subtropicsseeds are three-quarters ripe. More than 250 linesThey are generally picked from the plants at intervals of 3-4 days, both indigenous cleaned and exoticgraded for size, are maintained and catalogued at before being packed in baskets for the University of Agricultural Sciences of Bangaloremarket. In many cultivars, Indiathe pods mature in succession on the stem and shatter once they are ripe. Small collections For seed production, the pods are available at TNAU (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University)frequently picked by hand as soon as they ripe, Coimbatore until the plants reach full maturity and IIHR (Indian Institute the major proportion of Horticultural Research), Bangalorethe remaining pods has ripened. No attempts have been made so far At that stage, the entire plant is cut close to collect and catalogue the germplasm elsewhere in the world. In Australia ground with a sickle and New Zealand, only fodder types are maintainedthe vines left to dry for a few days before threshing.
Breeding Most of the improvement work is concentrated in India. == Yield ==The local landraces are average yield of long duration, photosensitive and lowgreen pods is 2600-yielding (500-600 4500 kg/ha). The main breeding objective is higher yield. With germplasm collections, India and of seed is trying 450 kg/ha if grown as intercrop and up to obtain bushy short1460 kg/ha in sole cropping. Fodder yields are 25-duration day-neutral disease-resistant cultivars40 t/ha.
Prospects As well as being == Handling after harvest ==Storage at 0-2 °C and a pulse, lablab relative humidity of 85-90 % is becoming more relevant for reported to extend the shelf-life of the green manure, as pods to a cover crop, for pasture and for fodder. Its drought resistance maximum of 21 days and its suitability for all types of soils gives it a wide range of optionsthe shelled fresh beans up to 7 days. Research priorities After drying and cleaning, mature seeds are: collection of all cultivars (germplasm)stored; identification usually earthenware or metallic containers are used in South-East Asia, and the seeds may be covered with a 5-cm protective layer of suitable Rhizobium strains; investigation of its value sand. Harvesting pods as an intercrop with food and forage cropssoon as the seed is ripe reduces bruchid infestation; further evaluation reduction of the nutritional value of the seeds for man and animalmoisture content to below 10 % is more effective.
Literature:== Genetic resources ==• Duke, J.AThere is wide genetic variation in the tropics and subtropics.More than 250 lines, 1981. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New York both indigenous and London. pp. 102-106.• Shivashankarexotic, G., Vishwanatha, S.R., Manjunath, A. & Chandrappa, H.M., 1971. Inheritance studies are maintained and breeding in Dolichos. Proceedings catalogued at the University of Agricultural Sciences of the International Symposium on Subtropical and Tropical Horticulture, February 1972. Bangalore, India.• SkermanSmall collections are available at TNAU (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University), P.J.Coimbatore and IIHR (Indian Institute of Horticultural Research), 1977Bangalore. Tropical forage legumesNo attempts have been made so far to collect and catalogue the germplasm elsewhere in the world. FAO, Rome. Plant Production In Australia and Protection Series No 2. pp. 314-322.• von SchaaffhausenNew Zealand, R., 1963. Dolichos lablab or hyacinth bean: its uses for feed, food and soil improvement. Economic Botany 17:146-153only fodder types are maintained.
== Breeding ==
Most of the improvement work is concentrated in India. The local landraces are of long duration, photosensitive and low-yielding (500-600 kg/ha). The main breeding objective is higher yield. With germplasm collections, India is trying to obtain bushy short-duration day-neutral disease-resistant cultivars.
Author: G== Prospects ==As well as being a pulse, lablab is becoming more relevant for green manure, as a cover crop, for pasture and for fodder. Shivashankar & RIts drought resistance and its suitability for all types of soils gives it a wide range of options.SResearch priorities are: collection of all cultivars (germplasm); identification of suitable Rhizobium strains; investigation of its value as an intercrop with food and forage crops; further evaluation of the nutritional value of the seeds for man and animal. Kulkarni
Source == Literature ==*Duke, J.A., 1981. Handbook of This Article:legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New York and London. pp. 102-106.*Shivashankar, G. & , Vishwanatha, S.R.S, Manjunath, A. Kulkarni& Chandrappa, 1989H. Lablab purpureus LM. (Sweet)In: van der Maesen, L1971.JInheritance studies and breeding in Dolichos.GProceedings of the International Symposium on Subtropical and Tropical Horticulture, February 1972. & SomaatmadjaBangalore, SIndia. (Editors)*Skerman, P.J., 1977. Tropical forage legumes. FAO, Rome. Plant Resources of South-East Asia Production and Protection Series No2. 1: Pulsespp. Pudoc314-322.*von Schaaffhausen, WageningenR., The Netherlands1963. Dolichos lablab or hyacinth bean: its uses for feed, ppfood and soil improvement. 48Economic Botany 17:146-50153.
Recommended Citation:== Author ==G. Shivashankar & R.S. Kulkarni == Source of This Article ==Shivashankar, G. & R.S. Kulkarni, 1989. Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet)[Internet] Record from Proseabase. In: van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (Editors).PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, IndonesiaNo. http1://wwwPulses.proseanetPudoc, Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp.org.Accessed from Internet: 21-Jan48-201650
== Recommended Citation ==
Shivashankar, G. & R.S. Kulkarni, 1989. Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet)In: van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Somaatmadja, S. (Editors). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
[[Category:Pulses (PROSEA)]]
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