Parkia timoriana (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.

Protologue: Philipp. Journ. Sci., Bot. 5: 33 (1910).


  • Parkia roxburghii G. Don (1832),
  • Parkia biglobosa auct. non (Jacq.) R.Br. (1830),
  • Parkia javanica auct.

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: alai (Sumatra), kedawung (Javanese), peundeuy (Sundanese)
  • Malaysia: kedaung (Sarawak), kupang (Sabah), petai kerayong (Peninsular)
  • Philippines: kupang (Pilipino), amarang (Palawan)
  • Burma (Myanmar): mai-karien (Shan)
  • Thailand: kariang, riang (peninsular).


India, Bangladesh, Burma (Myanmar), Thailand and throughout the Malesian region (except Papua New Guinea).


The ripe seeds, either roasted or boiled and powdered are taken in decoction as a well-known remedy for colic. Leaves and/or bark are externally applied to clean wounds and ulcers and to cure scabies. The pods pounded with water are used as a hair shampoo.


A tree up to 50 m tall.

  • Leaves alternate, primary rachis including petiole 18-42 cm long, pinnae 14-31 pairs, secondary rachis 8.7-11.5 cm long, leaflets 52-72 pairs per pinna, somewhat sigmoid, 6-10.5 mm √ó 1-2 mm, base auriculate on proximal side, apex acute.
  • Peduncles 5-7 per compound inflorescence, 8.5-33 cm long, head somewhat biglobose at anthesis, 5.5-6.7 cm long, apical part 3-4.5 cm in diameter; bisexual flowers, calyx up to 10.5 mm long, corolla up to 11 mm long, the lobes up to 2 mm.
  • Pod strap-shaped, up to 50 cm long (including stipe) and 4-5.5 cm broad, valves woody, rarely twisted, stipe of 6-15.5 cm long.
  • Seeds 12-19 per pod, lying horizontally across the width of the pod.

P. timoriana is found in lowland rain forest, mixed deciduous and dry evergreen forests, often along streams or the upper part of slopes, sometimes common, preferring fertile soils with a pH of 5-7, from 0-600(-1300) m altitude.

Selected sources

  • Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint. 2 volumes. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240, Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.


  • Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948-1976. The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. 11 volumes. Publications and Information Directorate, New Delhi, India.407, 480, 647, 810, 1066. medicinals


  • Umi Kalsom Yusuf
  • Ervizal A.M. Zuhud