Parartocarpus venenosus (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Parartocarpus venenosus (Zoll. & Moritzi) Becc.

Family: Moraceae


  • Parartocarpus woodii (Merr.) Merr.,
  • Parartocarpus triandra (J.J. Smith) J.J. Smith.
  • Gymnartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. & Moritzi) Boerl.

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: purut (Javanese), bulu ongko (Sundanese), pejatai (West Kalimantan)
  • Malaysia: ara berteh paya (Peninsular), tenggajun
  • Philippines: malanangka (Tagalog), pangi (Iloko), buratu (Ibanag)
  • Thailand: phayaa raak lueang (Yala), lee khaem (Surat Thani).


From peninsular Thailand throughout Malesia and the Solomon Islands, but absent in the Moluccas and the Lesser Sunda Islands.


The ripe fruit is edible (like breadfruit), but unripe seeds are poisonous. The latex is used as arrow poison and as insecticide. The wood is soft and not durable.


  • Dioecious tree, up to 35 m tall, containing poisonous latex.
  • Leaves obovate-oblong, 4-30 cm × 3-10 cm.
  • Inflorescences axillary, solitary.
  • Fruit (syncarp) subglobose, up to 18 cm diameter, sometimes lobed, covered by closely set spine-like protuberances.

Very variable species. Based on size of leaves and peduncles, hairiness and nature of spines, 4 subspecies have been distinguished:

  • ssp. venenosus in mixed and evergreen forests, up to 1000 m altitude (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia [Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan]).
  • ssp. papuanus (Becc.) Jarrett in evergreen forests, up to 700 m altitude (the Philippines, Sulawesi, New Guinea, Solomon Islands).
  • ssp. borneensis (Becc.) Jarrett in evergreen forests (Borneo).
  • ssp. forbesii (King) Jarrett in peat-swamp forests, up to 800 m altitude (Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo).

Selected sources

  • Brown, W.H., 1951-1957. Useful plants of the Philippines. Reprint of the 1941-1943 ed. 3 Volumes. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Technical Bulletin 10. Bureau of Printing, Manila, the Philippines.
  • Heyne, K., 1927. De nuttige planten van Nederlandsch Indië [The useful plants of the Dutch East Indies]. 2nd ed. 3 Volumes. Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel in Nederlandsch Indië. 1953 pp.
  • Jarrett, F.M., 1959-1960. Studies in Artocarpus and allied genera 1-4. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University 40: 1-38, 113-56, 298-369; 41: 73-141, 320-341.


P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen