Markhamia lutea (Bekele-Tesemma, 2007)

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Manilkara butugi
Bekele-Tesemma, Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia, 2007
Markhamia lutea (Bekele-Tesemma, 2007)
Maytenus arbutifolia

Markhamia lutea Bignoniaceae Indigenous

Common names

  • Amargna: Botoro
  • Oromugna: Buturu


A tree of the African high-rainfall tropical areas, at forest edges and in river valleys. It will stand acid heavy clay soil but not water logging. It prefers red loam and has deep roots. In Ethiopia, it occurs in Moist and Wet Kolla and the lower Weyna Dega agroclimatic zone, up to 2,000 m.


Firewood, charcoal, timber, poles, posts, tool handles, medicine (leaves), bee forage, shade, ornamental, mulch, soil conservation.


An upright evergreen tree with a narrow irregular crown, usually 10–15 m.

  • BARK: Light brown, finely cracked.
  • LEAVES: Compound, often in bunches, thin and wavy, each leaflet to 10 cm, wider at the tip. Often round leafy outgrowths at the base.
  • FLOWERS: Bright yellow clusters, each trumpet shaped, orange‑red stripes in the throat, buds furry, splitting on one side.
  • FRUIT: Long thin capsules, to 75 cm, hang in spiralling clusters, split on the tree to release many flat winged seeds. Mature seed is yellow‑white, prematurely collected seed turns black.


Seedlings, wildings.


The tree is a prolific seeder throughout the year. High seed germination rate. About 75,000 seed per kg. Timing is important for collection. Pods must be mature, indicated by the pale yellow colour turning grey. Once the pods split the seeds are dispersed by wind. The pods are collected and dried in the sun to facilitate the opening and release of seed.

  • Treatment: Not necessary.
  • Storage: Seed does not store well. Sow fresh seed.

Management Fast growing, pollarding, coppicing.


The wood is fairly termite resistant.