Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco

Protologue: Fl. Filip. ed. 2: 314 (1845).


  • Dipterocarpus griffithii Miq. (1864),
  • Dipterocarpus pterygocalyx R. Scheffer (1870).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: aput (South Kalimantan), tempudau tunden (East Kalimantan), lagan bras (Sumatra)
  • Malaysia: keruing belimbing (Peninsular, Sabah), keruing pekat (Peninsular)
  • Philippines: apitong (general), dauen (Ibanag), hapitong (Tagalog)
  • Burma: kanyin-byan
  • Thailand: yang-yung (general), yang-tang, yung-krabueang (peninsular)
  • Vietnam: dầu dọt tím.


The Andaman Islands, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines.


D. grandiflorus is an important source of keruing. The wood is used as pulp in the production of paper. Large quantities of oleo-resin (called "balau" or "minyak keruing") can be obtained from the wood. A tannin-formaldehyde adhesive can be produced from bark extracts.


  • A medium-sized to large tree of up to 43 m tall, bole straight, cylindrical, branchless for up to 30 m, up to 135 cm in diameter, buttresses absent or few, up to 1.5 m high and 1 m long, blunt, bark surface slightly fissured, grey or light yellowish, sapwood not sharply contrasted from the reddish-brown heartwood; buds ovoid, pale buff pubescent.
  • Leaves ovate, 10-18 cm × 5-12 cm, base obtuse or subcordate, acumen up to 1 cm long, secondary veins 15-17 pairs, glabrous, petiole 3-9 cm long, stipules oblong-lanceolate, subacute, outside densely buff pubescent.
  • Stamens 30.
  • Fruit calyx tube ellipsoid, glabrous, with 5 prominent wings continuous from base to apex, 2 larger fruit calyx lobes up to 22 cm × 3 cm, 3 shorter ones up to 2 cm × 1.5 cm.

D. grandiflorus is common and sometimes semi-gregarious on clay-rich soils and grows in primary semi-evergreen or evergreen forest up to 600 m altitude. The density of the wood is 650-945 kg/m3at 15% moisture content. See also the table on wood properties. A natural hybrid between D. grandiflorus and D. baudii has been observed in Burma.

Selected sources

102, 140, 162, 175, 235, 253, 258, 297, 417, 449, 461, 466, 476, 497, 501, 514, 565, 579, 607, 628, 632, 677, 737, 748, 815.

Main genus page


  • T. Smitinand (selection of species),
  • C. Phengklai (selection of species),
  • L.E. Groen (selection of species)