Colophospermum mopane (PROTA)

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Colophospermum mopane (Benth.) J.Léonard


distribution in Africa (wild)
1, tree habit; 2, flowering twig; 3, flower; 4, fruiting twig; 5, seed. Redrawn and adapted by G.W.E. van den Berg
tree habit (Zimbabweflora)
shrub
trunk
flowers (Zimbabweflora)
flowers (Zimbabweflora)
fruits (Zimbabweflora)
seeds
seeds
harvested bark
edible caterpillars on tree
mopane caterpillars
wood in transverse section
wood in tangential section
wood in radial section
Protologue: Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat 19: 390 (1949).
Family: Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae)
Chromosome number: 2n = 34, 36

Synonyms

  • Copaifera mopane Benth. (1865),
  • Hardwickia mopane (Benth.) Breteler (1997).

Vernacular names

  • Mopane, turpentine tree, balsam tree, butterfly tree, ironwood (En).
  • Mopane (Fr).
  • Mupane, chanate (Po).

Origin and geographic distribution

Colophospermum mopane is widespread in southern Africa, where it occurs in Zambia, Malawi, southern Angola, northern Namibia, north-eastern Botswana, Zimbabwe, southern Mozambique and northern South Africa. It has also been planted in semi-arid regions of India.

Uses

The wood of Colophospermum mopane is traditionally used for posts and poles in the construction of houses and palisade fences, and for carving. The wood accounts for more than 90% of the wood used for living and storing huts in large parts of southern Africa. It is suitable for heavy flooring, mine props, ship building, vehicle bodies, railway sleepers, ladders, sporting goods, toys, novelties, agricultural implements, tool handles, turnery, hardboard and particle board, and to a lesser extent, due to its weight and hardness, for joinery and furniture. Colophospermum mopane provides high quality firewood and is used for charcoal production. The wood, that has been claimed to be the best firewood of Africa, burns with great heat, slowly and evenly, and leaves little ash; it lights easily, even when green, but its hardness makes it difficult to fell, chop or split. Intricately shaped pieces of root are exported from Namibia to eastern Asia, where they are used as decorations for fish tanks and homes.

Seeds are consumed by humans as famine food. Colophospermum mopane is host of caterpillars of the mopane moth or emperor moth (Gonimbrasia belina) which feed on its leaves. The caterpillars are widely dried, roasted and consumed in southern Africa, and are collected and sold to generate income. The tree also hosts the psyllid Retroacizzia mopani (synonym: Arytaina mopani), a sap-sucking insect that produces ‘mopane manna’, a sweet wax-like cover on the leaves that is collected and eaten by people but also monkeys.

Colophospermum mopane is used in the preparation of traditional medicines. In Namibia extracts from heated wood or the fibres from chewed leaves are used to treat slow-healing wounds or to stop bleeding of wounds. Topnaar people in Namibia drink a decoction of the leaves against colds. To treat pain of the eyes or headache, a leaf decoction is dropped in the eye or the head is washed with it. In South Africa decoctions of the bark and wood are used to treat eye inflammations, venereal diseases, syphilis, diarrhoea and stomach pains. In Zimbabwe bark infusions are sometimes given to cattle against diarrhoea. Infusions or decoctions of the leaves are drunk or given as enema to treat constipation and stomach-ache. Twigs are used as chew-sticks to clean the teeth. The Venda people in South Africa use the roots to stop bleeding of the gums. In Mozambique roots have been used to kill intestinal worms.

Ash from the wood has high phosphate, calcium and lime contents and is used as fertilizer and to make whitewash. The bark is used in tanning hides. The inner bark provides fibre that makes a very strong rope. The leaves and fruits are browsed by livestock. They retain their nutritional value after falling to the ground; animals eat them off the ground during the dry season. They are crucial to livestock farmers for bridging the late dry season period when many trees are leafless. Fresh leaves and seeds smell strongly of turpentine, but this does not taint the meat or milk of animals feeding on them. The tree also acts as a food plant for a wild silk moth (Gonometa rufobrunnea). Cocoons of the moth are harvested as wild silk and processed to make cloth.

Production and international trade

There is little, if any, international trade in mopane timber. Production of timber, firewood and charcoal for local and regional markets is extensive, but statistics are not available. Apart from mopane wood products, there is a lucrative trade in mopane worms in formal and informal markets across southern Africa. The total value of this trade is not known precisely but has been estimated to be worth many millions US$.

Properties

Colophospermum mopane wood is very attractive in appearance. The heartwood is medium to reddish brown, with black stripes, darkening with age; it is clearly demarcated from the thin, off-white to pale brown sapwood. The grain is interlocked, sometimes nearly straight, texture coarse to moderately fine and even. The wood is oily and shows little lustre.

The wood is very heavy, with a density of 990–1230 kg/m³ at 12% moisture content, and hard. It air dries slowly but well, although it may be liable to surface checking. It does not easily end-split during drying; the oily content of the wood might explain this feature. Kiln drying may cause moderate surface checking and distortion. The rates of shrinkage are low to moderate, from green to oven dry about 4% radial and 5.2% tangential. At 12% moisture content, the modulus of rupture is 89–122 N/mm², modulus of elasticity 10,880–14,000 N/mm², compression parallel to grain 69–75 N/mm², shear 17 N/mm², Janka side hardness 13,100–21,000 N and Janka end hardness 19,400 N.

Mopane wood is generally difficult to work with both hand and machine tools, mainly on account of its high density. Machining has a severe blunting effect on saw teeth and cutting edges, and special tools are needed to obtain a fine surface and a good finish. Planing is difficult due to the presence of interlocked grain. The wood is difficult to nail and screw due to its hardness, and requires pre-boring; the nail-holding power is good. Polishing gives fair to good results. The wood varnishes, glues and turns well. It is very durable as it contains chemicals that resist attacks by termites and powder-post beetles. The heartwood is extremely resistant to treatment with preservatives, the sapwood is moderately permeable.

The wood ash contains about 15% lime. The bark contains 5.9% tannin. The nutritional value of Colophospermum mopane foliage was assessed in South Africa. On average, the foliage contained per 100 g dry matter: ash 5.8 g, crude protein 14.1 g, neutral detergent fibre 38.0 g, acid detergent fibre 30.7 g, acid detergent insoluble N 1.0 g, acid detergent lignin 14.6 g and ether extract 4.2 g. The mean content of macro-nutrients in the foliage has been estimated per 100 g dry matter at: Ca 1.0 g, P 0.16 g, K 0.8 g, Mg 0.2 g, and Na 0.004 g. The mean content of micro-nutrients was assessed per 100 g dry matter at: Cu 0.8 mg, Co 0.3 mg, Mn 5.6 mg and Se 0.01 mg. The foliage contains relatively high concentrations of condensed tannins, which tend to diminish in older leaves, making them more acceptable to browsers during the dry season. Small amounts of leaves added to the diet of young pigs increased their growth rate and production.

The diterpene 8(S),13(S)-dihydrogrindelic acid and its C-13 epimer were isolated from the seeds; both are intermediates in the biosynthesis of 9,13-epoxylabdanes. The aerial parts of the plant are rich in essential oil, consisting mainly of α-pinene (68–72%) and limonene (3.5–5%), which are presumably responsible for the strong turpentine odour of the fruits and leaves. The leaves also contain significant concentrations of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol, which are apparently the source of sterols in various organs of the mopane moth. The polyphenolic pool of the heartwood exhibits extreme diversity and complexity. It comprises a variety of monomeric flavonoids, flavan-3,4-diols including mopanols and peltogynols, flavonols, dimeric proanthocyanidins, profisetinidins, promopanidins, propeltogynidins, and a variety of profisetinidin-type triflavanoids.

Description

  • Deciduous small tree, often remaining stunted as a shrub, up to 15(–24) m tall, with one or more straight boles up to 100 cm in diameter; bark rough, deeply vertically fissured, dark grey to brown, irregularly scaling off, often forming elongate-reticulate patches, inner bark fibrous, laminated, pink to red; crown narrow, with few main branches diverging at a narrow angle; twigs glabrous, smooth, grey.
  • Leaves alternate, compound with a single pair of leaflets; stipules ovate, up to 5 mm long, early caducous; petiole (1–)1.5–4(–5) cm long, with a small, flat appendage 2–4(–5) mm long at apex; pulvinus at base of leaflet broader than long, contiguous with the opposite one; leaflets obliquely ovate or lanceolate to falcate-triangular, (2–)4–10(–13) cm × (1.5–)2.5–5(–6.5) cm, base asymmetrical, apex acute to obtuse, margins convex, leathery, glabrous, with numerous pellucid gland dots, with (7–)8–12(–14) veins from the base.
  • Inflorescence an axillary raceme up to 7 cm long, simple or with one or two branches at the base, 7–13-flowered.
  • Flowers bisexual, regular, greenish white to yellowish; pedicel 4–8 mm long; sepals 4, nearly round, c. 5 mm long, glabrous, reflexed; petals absent; stamens 20–25, free, c. 7 mm long; ovary superior, flattened obovoid, c. 3 mm long, glabrous, style c. 2 mm long, glabrous, stigma broad.
  • Fruit a flattened, obliquely obovoid to kidney-shaped pod (2.5–)3–4.5(–6) cm × 2–2.5(–3) cm, narrowed at base, rounded at apex, with style remnants half to two-thirds of the way along the upper side, glabrous, straw-coloured with minute, sunken, glandular flecks of darker brown, usually with raised reticulate venation, indehiscent, 1-seeded.
  • Seeds almost filling the fruit, kidney-shaped, compressed, margin flattened, surface with deep folds, pitted with numerous reddish, sticky glands.
  • Seedling with epigeal germination.

Other botanical information

Colophospermum comprises a single species. It has been included in Hardwickia (a genus of one species in India) and this is supported by pollen morphology, chromosome numbers and phylogenetic analyses; in 2005 the name Colophospermum has been conserved against Hardwickia. Colophospermum seems also to be related to Prioria.

Anatomy

Wood-anatomical description (IAWA hardwood codes):

  • Growth rings: 1: growth ring boundaries distinct; (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent).
  • Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 25: intervessel pits small (4–7 μm); 29: vestured pits; 30: vessel-ray pits with distinct borders; similar to intervessel pits in size and shape throughout the ray cell; (41: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 50–100 μm); 42: mean tangential diameter of vessel lumina 100–200 μm; 47: 5–20 vessels per square millimetre; (48: 20–40 vessels per square millimetre); 58: gums and other deposits in heartwood vessels.
  • Tracheids and fibres: 61: fibres with simple to minutely bordered pits; 66: non-septate fibres present; 70: fibres very thick-walled.
  • Axial parenchyma: (76: axial parenchyma diffuse); 79: axial parenchyma vasicentric; 80: axial parenchyma aliform; 81: axial parenchyma lozenge-aliform; (83: axial parenchyma confluent); 86: axial parenchyma in narrow bands or lines up to three cells wide; 89: axial parenchyma in marginal or in seemingly marginal bands; (91: two cells per parenchyma strand); 92: four (3–4) cells per parenchyma strand.
  • Rays: 97: ray width 1–3 cells; 104: all ray cells procumbent; 115: 4–12 rays per mm.
  • Mineral inclusions: 136: prismatic crystals present; 142: prismatic crystals in chambered axial parenchyma cells; (143: prismatic crystals in fibres).
(E.A. Obeng, P. Baas & H. Beeckman)

Growth and development

The root system of Colophospermum mopane is remarkably shallow (30–120 cm deep) but very extensive and well adapted to arid conditions. The roots can take up water from drier soil than competing grasses. The leaves fold together and hang straight down under intense sunshine or water stress, producing very little shade which adds to the harshness of mopane woodlands. Trees shed most of their leaves gradually during the dry season and can be leafless for up to 5 months, but mostly shorter. New leaves appear just before or soon after the first rains, although flushing seems independent of the rains in Namibia and Botswana. New leaves are yellowish and soft, and turn green and leathery with age. Flowering begins when trees are 5 years old and usually occurs soon after new leaves have developed, between October and March, but can be erratic with no flowers at all for several years. Fruits usually appear between March and June. They are dispersed by rain-wash and wind, and over short distances only.

Root suckers are commonly found around the base of established trees. They are produced when trees are damaged by fire, drought, humans or elephants. Coppice growth can be vigorous and sometimes forms almost impenetrable thickets. Mycorrhizae are often present on the roots, but N-fixing nodules have not been found. However, a symbiosis of the roots has been observed with a bacterium, causing gradual degeneration of the roots and the formation of new ones, thus forming clusters of new roots. It has been suggested that these clusters might be considered as a primitive form of root nodules.

Colophospermum mopane is not a pioneer species and does not invade new, disturbed areas. Regeneration under existing trees occurs, but it is uncertain to what extent. Thousands of seedlings are commonly found during the rainy season, but saplings of 1–5 years old are rarely encountered. Stands are often even sized and possibly of even age, with few small or young trees. In a trial in 10 permanent sample plots in a mopane woodland in northern South Africa, the survival of seedlings was observed for nearly 3 years. The highest seedling mortality rate of 39% was recorded during the establishment period. Only 3% of the original seedlings, estimated at 294,000 seedlings per ha, survived till the end of the test period. Stands of seedlings under the canopies of mother trees were the first to die out completely, probably due to competition. Growth rates are generally slow. In northern South Africa, the age of a tree with a bole diameter of 10 cm was estimated at 42 years, which was believed to be in line with an average age of full-grown trees of 100–200 years.

Ecology

Colophospermum mopane is found in hot, low-lying areas, especially dry river valleys, up to 1000 (–1300) m altitude, with a mean maximum temperature of about 30°C and a mean annual rainfall of 400–700 mm, although it occurs in some localities in Namibia receiving only 100 mm rainfall per year. It occurs in areas with alluvial or colluvial soils and is also widespread in Kalahari sands. While growth is best in fertile slightly acidic, friable and permeable deep clay soils, it tolerates alkaline and poorly drained and temporarily waterlogged soils. The lack of clay-rich soils with a fair nutrient level may explain the absence of Colophospermum mopane at higher altitudes. In the drier savanna woodlands of the central part of southern Africa, it is often gregarious and dominant, occurring in almost pure stands known as ‘mopane woodland’ or ‘Colophospermum woodland’. In some areas the plants remain stunted, forming ‘mopane scrub’. Mopane woodlands cover an area of more than 500,000 km². The bark is resistant to fire. Slight frost to –3°C is tolerated.

Propagation and planting

Colophospermum mopane is easily propagated by seed, wildlings and cuttings. The weight of 1000 seeds is about 500 g. Germination is easy and no pre-treatment is needed. The seeds germinate inside the pod which does not break open, but germination is more rapid and even when seeds are removed from the pod. Seeds can be soaked in cold water for 24 hours to speed up germination. With proper care, fresh seeds can attain a germination rate of 100%. Storage behaviour is orthodox.; seeds can be stored for several years and still attain good germination. In Botswana seeds stored for 8 years still had a germination rate of 78%, but in a trial in India germination failed completely after storage for the same period.

In the nursery, it is recommended to sow seeds in flat seedling trays in clean or sterilized river sand. Seeds should be partly covered when sown in trays and kept moist. Deeply buried seeds will not germinate. Germination normally takes 1–2 weeks. Seedlings should be carefully transplanted from seedbeds or germination trays into nursery bags filled with a loamy soil with some sand and compost added. Seedlings are susceptible to damping-off and should not be watered too excessively. Initially they grow slowly, but growth speeds up once they have reached a height of 20 cm. Seedlings are sensitive to frost and should be given protection in the nursery during the cold season.

Management

There are no reports of man-made Colophospermum mopane plantations in Africa, except for plantings of a few or single trees for shade in homesteads. Planting on farmland is not common, but during forest clearing farmers often leave a few isolated trees to provide some shade during the cropping season.

Seedlings and wildlings should be transplanted at the start of the rainy season to enable them to establish and survive without watering. After planting out, seedlings are light demanding and susceptible to competition, necessitating several weedings. Only under very dry conditions can seedlings compete well with other species. They should also be protected from livestock.

Pollarding and lopping is quite well tolerated, with rapid re-growth of new shoots. Trees managed for producing poles can be left to grow for up to 10 years and can then be pollarded to a height of 2 m.

Diseases and pests

Mopane is often defoliated by the larvae of the mopane moth (Gonimbrasia belina). Large population outbreaks of the caterpillars occur once or twice a year in November/December and February/March, and large stands of Colophospermum mopane trees are then completely defoliated. The larvae of the psyllid Retroacizzia mopani also feed on mopane leaves, causing them to curl. Termite attack has been observed on young seedlings. No important diseases have been recorded either in southern Africa or in the arid regions of India where the species is planted.

Harvesting

Because of the hardness of the wood, stems of Colophospermum mopane are difficult to fell, especially with hand tools, and heavy-duty chain-saws are normally used. Old and large trees often show severe heart rot.

Yield

Forest inventories have reported densities for mature Colophospermum mopane trees ranging from a few trees/ha in semi-arid north-western Namibia to 480 trees/ha in south-eastern Zimbabwe. Typical mopane tree densities are approximately 200–400 tree/ha. In northern South Africa the total standing biomass of a mopane woodland has been estimated at 24 t/ha.

Genetic resources

Colophospermum mopane is not under threat of genetic erosion because it is widespread and common over large areas. However, some parts of southern Africa experience a decline in natural stands due to the multiple uses of the species, the growing population, forest clearing for agriculture, excessive burning, growing elephant populations and possibly changes in climate. Systematic germplasm collection and specific conservation programmes do not exist, but there are small collections in botanical gardens in southern Africa.

Prospects

Colophospermum mopane is highly valued for its wood used in construction of houses and fences because of its great durability and resistance to termites, and as firewood because of its excellent burning properties. These uses are likely to increase in importance and may locally become a threat to mopane woodlands. Colophospermum mopane is a true multipurpose tree, not only important for its wood but also as source of medicine, forage and edible caterpillars. Protection measures and domestication should be explored to attain sustainable exploitation of this species, which is one of the most characteristic indigenous trees of southern Africa. As an important medicinal plant, research is needed into its active compounds.

Major references

  • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. 710 pp.
  • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M., 2007. Leguminosae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Timberlake, J.R., Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (Editors). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 3, part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 218 pp.
  • Coates Palgrave, K., 2002. Trees of southern Africa. 3rd Edition. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa. 1212 pp.
  • Mojeremane, W. & Lumbile, A.U., 2005. The characteristics and economic values of Colophospermum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) J.Léonard in Botswana. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 8: 781–784.
  • Palmer, E. & Pitman, N., 1972–1974. Trees of southern Africa, covering all known indigenous species in the Republic of South Africa, South-West Africa, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. 3 volumes. Balkema, Cape Town, South Africa. 2235 pp.
  • Roodt, V., 1998. The Shell field guide to trees and shrubs of the Okavango Delta. Medicinal uses and nutritional value. The Shell Field Guide Series Part 1. Shell Oil, Gaborone, Botswana. 220 pp.
  • Ross, J.H., 1977. Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Ross, J.H. (Editor). Flora of southern Africa. Volume 16, part 2. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Pretoria, South Africa. 142 pp.
  • Timberlake, J., 1995. Colophospermum mopane: Annotated bibliography and review. Zimbabwe Bulletin of Forestry Research No. 11. Harare, Zimbabwe. 49 pp.
  • Timberlake, J., 1999. Colophospermum mopane: an overview of current knowledge. In: Timberlake, J. & Kativu, S. (Editors). African plants. Biodiversity, taxonomy and uses. Proceedings of the 1997 AETFAT Congress, Harare, Zimbabwe. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom. pp. 565–571.
  • van Wyk, B.E. & Gericke, N., 2000. People’s plants: a guide to useful plants of southern Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria, South Africa. 351 pp.

Other references

  • Baerts, M. & Lehmann, J., 2012. Colophospermum mopane. [Internet] Prelude Medicinal Plants Database. Metafro-Infosys, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium http://www.metafro.be/prelude. February 2012.
  • Fanshawe, D.B., 1972. Useful trees of Zambia for the agriculturist. Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources. Government Printer, Lusaka, Zambia. 126 pp.
  • Goldsmith, B. & Carter, D.T., 1981. The indigenous timbers of Zimbabwe. Forestry Commission, Zimbabwe Research Bulletin No 9.
  • Gondo, T., Frost, P., Kozanayi, W., Stack, J. & Mushongahande, M., 2010. Linking knowledge and practice: Assessing options for sustainable use of mopane worms (Imbrasia belina) in southern Zimbabwe. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 12(4): 127–145.
  • Henning, A.C. & White, R.E., 1974. A study of the growth and distribution of Colophospermum mopane (Kirk ex Benth.) Kirk ex J. Léon.: the interaction of nitrogen, phosphorous and soil moisture stress. Proceedings of the Grassland Society of Southern Africa 9: 53–60.
  • Kozanayi, W. & Frost, P., 2002. Marketing of mopane worm in southern Zimbabwe. [Internet] In: Mopane worm market survey: southern Zimbabwe. Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe. pp. 1–20. http://www.dfid.gov.uk/ r4d/PDF/Outputs/Forestry/ R7822_-_Mopane_Worm_Marketing.pdf. February 2012.
  • Lukhele, M.S. & van Ryssen, J.B.J., 2003. The chemical composition and potential nutritive value of the foliage of four subtropical tree species in southern Africa for ruminants. South African Journal of Animal Science 33(2): 132–141.
  • Makhado, R.A., Potgieter, M.J. & Wessels, D.C.J., 2009. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 921–945.
  • Mojeremane, W. & Kgati, T., 2005. Seed treatments for enhancing germination of Colophospermum seeds: a multipurpose tree in Botswana. Journal of Biological Sciences 5: 309–311.
  • Mulofwa, J., Simute, S. & Tengnäs, B., 1994. Agroforestry manual for extension workers in southern Province, Zambia. Technical Handbook No. 4. Regional Soil Conservation Unit / Swedish International Development Unit, Nairobi, Kenya. 104 pp.
  • Mushove, P.T. & Makoni, J.T., 1993. Coppicing ability of Colophospermum mopane. In: Pearce, G.D. & Gumbo, D.J. (Editors). The ecology and management of indigenous forests of southern Africa. Forestry Commission, Zimbabwe. pp. 226–230.
  • Mushove, P.T., Prior, J.A.B., Gumbie, C. & Cutler, D.F., 1995. The effects of different environments on diameter growth increments of Colophospermum mopane and Combretum apiculatum. Forest Ecology and Management 72: 287–292.
  • Smit, G.N., 2001. The influence of tree thinning on the vegetative growth and browse production of Colophospermum mopane. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 31: 99–114.
  • Styles, C.V. & Skinner, J.D., 1997. Seasonal variations in the quality of mopane leaves as a source of browse for mammalian herbivores. African Journal of Ecology 35: 254–265.
  • Tietema, T., Merkesdal, E. & Schroten, J., 1992. Seed germination of indigenous trees in Botswana. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi, Kenya. 106 pp.
  • Tietema, T., Tolsma, D.J., Veenendaal, E.M. & Schroten, J., 1991. Plant responses to human activities in the tropical savannah ecosystem of Botswana. In: Ecological Responses to Environmental Stresses, Netherlands, Kluwer. pp. 262–276.
  • Van Damme, P., Van den Eynden, V. & Vernemmen, P., 1992. Plant uses by the Topnaar of the Sesfontein area (Namib desert). [Internet] Afrika Focus 8(3-4): 253–281. http://www.gap.ugent.be/ africafocus/pdf/ 92–8–34-VanDamme4.pdf. February 2012.
  • Van den Eynden, V., Vernemmen, P. & Van Damme, P., 1992. The ethnobotany of the Topnaar. University of Gent, Belgium. 145 pp.
  • van Wyk, B. & van Wyk, P., 1997. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa. 536 pp.
  • Wessels, D., undated. Mopane woodland management. [Internet] www.dfid.gov.uk/ r4d/pdf/outputs/ R7822f.doc. February 2012.

Sources of illustration

  • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M., 2007. Leguminosae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. In: Timberlake, J.R., Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (Editors). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 3, part 2. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 218 pp.
  • Coates Palgrave, K., 2002. Trees of southern Africa. 3rd Edition. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa. 1212 pp.

Author(s)

  • R. Melusi, Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana
  • W. Mojeremane, Department of Crop Science and Production, Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana

Correct citation of this article

Melusi, R. & Mojeremane, W., 2012. Colophospermum mopane (Benth.) J.Léonard. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Louppe, D. & Oteng-Amoako, A.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Accessed 11 November 2020.