Cichorium endivia

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Cichorium endivia L.

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flowering scarole
Order Asterales
Family Asteraceae
Genus Cichorium

2n = 18, 36

Origin : Europe


English endive
French chicorée scarole et chicorée frisée

Usages summary
  • very popular salads : curled and broad-leaved endive

  • Up to the XIXe century, the species was named endive in French, but this name now designates in France Cichorium intybus Witloof Group, whereas the Wallon Belgians continue to name endive this species and chicon the Witloof Group.


  • annual herbaceous plant, much branched, up to 1,7 m high
  • taproot
  • leaves oboval, entire or lobed, glabrous or slightly puberulent
  • heads solitary or by 4-6, sessile or pedonculate
  • pedoncle thickened at apex
  • involucre with lanceolate, reflected bracts
  • flowers all ligulate, blue
  • fruit: achene, obovoid to cylindrical, slightly ribbed

Popular names


Cichorium endivia L. (1753)


No complete system of botanical classification has ever been published, and many cultivar groups have remained unknown to botanists. We follow here a pragmatic classification on a use base.

Chicorée blanche Group

synonym :

  • var. endivia
  • var. angustifolium Lam. (1785)
  • French: chicorée blanche
  • German: Schnittendivie

This primitive form has quite disappeared.

Scarole Group

synonym : var. latifolium Lam. (1785)

  • English: endive, broad-leaved endive
  • French: scarole, chicorée scarole
  • See the names in all the European languages

Curled Endive Group

synonyme : var. crispum Lam. (1785)

  • English: curled endive
  • French: chicorée frisée
  • See the names in all the European languages


Cichorium endivia is not found in a wild stage. De Candolle (1882) thought that its wild progenitor was Cichorium pumilum Jacq. More recent authors consider it more likely as a hybrid between Cichorium intybus and Cichorium pumilum, agreement being reached on the botanical affinity of both species of cultivated chicories.