Canarium pilosum (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Canarium pilosum Bennett

Protologue: Hook.f., Fl. Brit. India 1: 533 (1875).
Family: Burseraceae


  • Canarium grandiflorum Bennett (1875),
  • Canarium hirtellum Benn. (1875),
  • Canarium motleyanum Engl. (1883).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: damar kunang, medang serababa (Sumatra), merasam daun alus (Palembang, Sumatra), surian uding (Simeuluë), damar lilin (Kalimantan)
  • Malaysia: kejam penggeli, kedondong, kedondong kerut (Peninsular), keramoh batu (Sarawak).


Indonesia (Sumatra, Kalimantan), Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak), Brunei.


The seeds are edible, sweet. The wood is durable against insects and is used as kedondong for building houses. The resin is used to close wounds.


  • A medium-sized to fairly large tree up to 37 m tall, bole straight, branchless for up to 22 m, up to 65 cm in diameter, sometimes buttressed up to 1 m high, bark surface smooth, grey-white to grey-brown, sometimes mottled, inner bark laminated, brown, exuding greyish to brown or blackish resin; stipules usually persistent, inserted on the petiole, narrow.
  • Leaves with (3-)5-9(-13) leaflets, leaflets with gradually to distinctly short to long-acuminate apex, margin entire to minutely serrulate, pubescent or rarely glabrous, with 8-15 pairs of secondary veins, midrib raised above.
  • Inflorescence axillary to pseudoterminal, rarely terminal, male one narrowly paniculate, female one racemose; flowers 10-13 mm long, stamens 6.
  • Infructescence up to 10 cm long, with 1-4(-8) fruits crowded near the top.
  • Fruit an oblong to ovoid drupe, truncate at apex, rounded triangular in cross-section, (17.5-)22.5-32.5 mm × (7.5-)10-15 mm, glabrous except sometimes at apex, containing 1 seed usually.

C. pilosum is highly polymorphic. Two subspecies are distinguished: ssp. pilosum (as described here), and ssp. borneensis Leenh. (smaller tree, absence of stipules, leaves 0-5-jugate, glabrous, smaller flowers, fruits larger, ellipsoid, 4-4.5 cm × 1.5 cm, occurring only in Sabah and Sarawak).

C. pilosum is fairly common in primary forest, also in swamp forest, up to 350(-1500) m altitude. Main flowering-fruiting period is September-October. The density of the wood is390-815 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. The wood is reported not to be susceptible to insect attack.

Selected sources

  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. et al. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Series 1. Vol. 1, 4-10. Centre for Research and Development in Biology, Bogor, Indonesia, and Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.

9, 77, 78, 99, 162, 342, 366, 705. timbers


  • P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen
  • M.S.M. Sosef (selection of species)

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