Canarium patentinervium (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Canarium patentinervium Miq.

Protologue: Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl.: 526 (1861).
Family: Burseraceae


  • Canarium nitidum Bennett (1875),
  • Canarium parvifolium Bennett (1875).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: madang merpalam (western central Sumatra), kedondong tulang (Palembang, Sumatra), kaju kana, kaju pandan (Sumatra)
  • Malaysia: kaju kedapak, kedondong, kedondong krut (Peninsular), keramoh (Sarawak).
  • Borneo: belasah, keramoh
  • Thailand: phuam phraao (Chumphon).


Thailand (peninsular), Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Bangka, Anambas Islands, Borneo.


The seeds are eaten. The soft wood is used as kedondong, but mostly useful as fuel.


  • A medium-sized to fairly large tree up to 40 m tall, bole straight, cylindrical, up to 50 cm in diameter, buttresses absent or small, bark surface smooth to fissured, often with inconspicuous hoop marks, grey-white to grey-brown, inner bark loosely fibrous, red to reddish-brown, exuding clear resin.
  • Stipules caducous, inserted in the leaf axil, kidney-shaped; leaves with (5-)7-9(-11) leaflets, leaflets with gradually to distinctly shortly acuminate apex, margin entire, glabrous, with 5-15 pairs of secondary veins which arch distinctly at some distance from the margin, midrib flattened or depressed above.
  • Inflorescence terminal, male one laxly paniculate, female one more dense; flowers 7-10 mm long, stamens 6.
  • Infructescence 6-8 cm long with up to 4 fruits.
  • Fruit an ellipsoid to obovoid drupe, circular to rounded triangular in cross-section, 30-60 mm × 17-30 mm, glabrous, containing 1-3 seeds.

C. patentinervium occurs in primary or secondary forest, sometimes in swamp forest, up to 450(-1200) m altitude, flowering mainly from November to May, fruiting from September to April. In Peninsular Malaysia, it is a common understorey tree. The density of the wood is 500-700 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. Very closely related to Canarium littorale Blume.

Selected sources

  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. et al. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Series 1. Vol. 1, 4-10. Centre for Research and Development in Biology, Bogor, Indonesia, and Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.

9, 77, 78, 99, 162, 342, 366, 463, 705. timbers


  • P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen
  • M.S.M. Sosef (selection of species)

Main genus page