Canarium hirsutum (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Canarium hirsutum Willd.

Protologue: Sp. pl. 4(2): 760 (1806).


  • Canarium hispidum Blume (1823),
  • Canarium multipinnatum Llanos (1851),
  • Canarium subcordatum Ridley (1920).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: ki bonteng (West Java), kanari jaki (northern Sulawesi), mede-mede (Moluccas)
  • Malaysia: kedondong (general), damar degun (Peninsular), kambayau burong (Sabah)
  • Philippines: dulit (general), bakayan (Panay Bisaya), hagushus (Bikol).


Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, the Philippines, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, New Guinea, the Caroline Islands (Palau) and the Solomon Islands.


C. hirsutum is an important source of kedondong. The resin is probably used for torches and as a glue. A decoction of the roots has locally been used medicinally against stomach pains.


  • A medium-sized, sometimes large tree up to 32(-48) m tall, bole straight,branchless for up to 24(-36.5) m, up to 60(-200) cm in diameter, buttresses usually absent or very small, bark surface greyish-brown to dark brown.
  • Stipules absent or present, inserted at the base of the petiole, narrow; leaves with 9-27 leaflets, rachis thick with sharp edges, leaflets gradually to rather abruptly short-acuminate at apex, margin entire, variably pubescent to glabrous, with 12-30 pairs of secondary veins.
  • Inflorescence axillary, male one paniculate, female one subracemose.
  • Flowers 10-13 mm long, stamens 6.
  • Fruit ovoid, circular in cross-section, 20-63 mm × 17-45 mm, usually with irritating reddish-brown hairs.

The species is highly polymorphic and 2 subspecies each with 2 varieties have been distinguished. Subsp. hirsutum with the varieties hirsutum and beccarii Leenh. occurs throughout the range of the species except for New Guinea. Subsp. multicostulatum Leenh. with the varieties multicostulatum and leewenii Leenh. is found in the Moluccas, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. C. hirsutum is locally rather common in primary and secondary forest in wet to well-drained locations, usually at low elevations, rarely up to 1800 m altitude. The density of the wood is 360-780 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Selected sources

9, 77, 78, 99, 125, 162, 342, 366, 705.


M.S.M. Sosef (selection of species)

Main genus page