Artocarpus rigidus (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

fruiting branch

Artocarpus rigidus Blume

Protologue: Bijdr. fl. Ned. Ind.: 482 (1825).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: tempuni, kundang (general), pusar (Sundanese, Java), purian (Sumatra)
  • Malaysia: temponek, nangka pipit (Peninsular), pala musoh (Sarawak). Burma (Myanmar): taung, peing, sone-padat
  • Cambodia: knor prey, dom knol prei
  • Thailand: khanun-pa (peninsular)
  • Vietnam: cây mit nai, cây da xóp.


From Burma (Myanmar) and Indo-China to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, western and central Java and Borneo; in Indonesia occasionally planted as fruit tree.


The wood is used as keledang, e.g. for beams, furniture and boats. The fruit is edible and tasty. The seeds are also edible.


  • A medium-sized to large evergreen tree up to 45 m tall, bole up to 115 cm in diameter, buttresses short or up to 3 m high.
  • Leaves oblong-elliptical to ovate-elliptical or obovate-elliptical, base cuneate to narrowly rounded, usually glabrous above except for the pubescent main veins, with appressed hispid veins below, with (9-)12-20 pairs of secondary veins, stipules amplexicaul.
  • Male head obovoid to globose, 13-20 mm across, on a 2-6 mm long peduncle; styles in female head simple.
  • Syncarp globose, up to 7(-13) cm across, with rigid, fluted, acute processes, hispid.

A. rigidus is closely related to A. hispidus Jarrett and may even be conspecific with this species. It is highly variable and is divided into 2 subspecies:

  • subsp. rigidus (synonyms: A. cuspidatus Griffith, A. kertau Zoll. ex Miq., A. dimorphophyllus Miq., A. varians Miq.) occurring in southern Burma (Myanmar) and the Malesian region, and
  • subsp. asperulus (Gagnep.) Jarrett (synonyms: A. asperula Gagnep., A. calophylla Kurz) occurring in Indo-China.

It is not uncommon in evergreen forest on well-drained level and hilly locations, sometimes near streams, up to 900 m altitude. The density of the wood is 410-940 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. See also the table on wood properties.

Selected sources

69, 75, 77, 78, 104, 234, 235, 262, 294, 363, 465, 474, 507, 553, 577, 705. timbers

Sources of illustrations

Ochse, J.J., 1927. Indische vruchten. Volkslectuur, Weltevreden. p. 133, Fig. 64. Redrawn and adapted by P. Verheij Hayes.