Ocimum basilicum

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Ocimum basilicum L.

alt=Description de l'image Basil-Basilico-Ocimum basilicum-albahaca.jpg.
Ordre Lamiales
Famille Lamiaceae
Genre Ocimum

2n = 48

Origine : Inde, Iran

sauvage et cultivé

Français basilic
Anglais basil

Résumé des usages
  • feuilles condimentaires
  • graines mucilagineuses en boisson


Noms populaires

français basilic
créole antillais fonbazen (TRAMIL)
anglais basil, sweet basil, French basil, Réunion basil
allemand Basilienkraut
néerlandais bazielkruid
italien basilico
espagnol albahaca
catalan alfàbrega, alfabaguera, alfàbega, aufàbiga, aufàtia
portugais alfavaca, mangericão
arabe rīhān (Machrek), ḥabaq (Maghreb)
chinois 罗勒 - luo le (Flora of China)
japonais bajiru
hindi bābul tulsī, gulāl tulsī
Philippines balanoy, solasi (tagalog), kamangi (culion) (PROSEA)
Indonésie selasih, kemangi (général), surawung (sundanais) (PROSEA)
Malaysia kemangi, selasi jantan, selasi hitam (PROSEA)
Thaïlande horapha (PROSEA)
Vietnam húng giỏi, é trắng, é tía (PROSEA)
Laos phak 'i:x tu:x (PROSEA)
Cambodge chi neang vong (PROSEA)


Ocimum basilicum L. (1753)

synonyme :

  • Ocimum minimum L. (1753)




Tropical Asia, perhaps also north-eastern Africa. Locally naturalized throughout tropical Africa, Asia and America. Cultivated as an important culinary herb, essential oil crop and medicinal plant in Africa, southern Europe, southern Asia, Latin and southern North America (esp. California). Also grown as a bee plant and for ornament. The fresh or dehydrated leaves, sometimes also the inflorescences, used for flavouring vegetable dishes, soups, sauces, meat, fish and cheese. The basil essential oil added as a flavouring for confectionary, some liqueurs and commercial condiments. It is employed in cosmetics and perfumes. The mucilaginous nutlets are eaten and source of a tonic drink, Cherbet Tokhum, in Mediterranean countries. The plant has been used as a remedy (stomachic, carminative, gargle), aphrodisiac and insect repellent. Ocimum forskolei Benth., Labiat. gen. spec. 1 (1832) 6, occasionally grown and wild from Egypt to Arabia and Kenya has been suggested as the ancestor of O. basilicum. Cultivation since ancient times in India, Egypt and the Greek and Roman antiquity. Many varieties and cultivars have been distinguished, differing in height, growth form, leaf size and shape, stem, leaf and flower colour (Danert 1959, Darrah 1980, Ivanova 1990). Several chemotypes of specific odour and aroma are characterized by different amounts of the major constituents of its essential oils (geraniol, eugenol, methyl chavicol, linalool, camphor and methyl cinnamate). New hybridogenous varieties have been recommended for cultivation recently, like Ocimum basilicum L. × O. forskolei Benth. as a culinary herb.



  • Chauvet, Michel, 2018. Encyclopédie des plantes alimentaires. Paris, Belin. 880 p. (p. 352)
  • Danert, S., 1959. Ocimum L (p. 379-380). in: R. Mansfeld (ed.), Vorläufiges Verzeichnis landwirtschaftlich oder gärtnerisch kultivierter Pflanzenarten (mit Ausschluß von Zierpflanzen). Kulturpflanze, Beiheft 2 Akademie-Verl., Berlin. 659 p.
  • Darrah, H. H., 1980. The cultivated basils. Buckeye Independence, Missouri. 40 p.
  • Ivanova, K. V., 1990. Vnutrividovaja klassificija bazilika ogorodnogo (Ocimum basilicum L.). Sborn. Nauchn. Trudov. Prikl. Bot. Genet. Selekts., 133: 41-49.
  • Voir Jansen, Spices and medicinal plants in Ethiopia (1981)
  • Marzell, H., 1970. Zur Geschichte des Basilienkrautes (Ocimum basilicum). Regnum Veg., 71: 135-143.
  • Paton, A. & E. Putievsky, 1996. Taxonomic problems and cytotaxonomic relationships between and within varieties of Ocimum basilicum and related species (Labiatae). Kew Bull., 51 (3): 509-524.
  • Paton, A., U. R. Harley & M. M. Harley, 1999. Ocimum - an overview of classification and relationships (p. 1-38). in: R. Hiltunen & Y. Holm (eds.), Basil: the genus Ocimum. - Medicinal and aromatic plants - industrial profiles, 10, Harwood Acad. Publ., Amsterdam. 176 p.
  • Ryding, O., 1994. Notes on the sweet basil and its wild relatives (Lamiaceae). Econ. Bot., 48 (1): 65-67.
  • TRAMIL, Pharmacopée végétale caribéenne, éd. scient. L. Germosén-Robineau. 2014. 3e éd. Santo Domingo, Canopé de Guadeloupe. 420 p. Voir sur Pl@ntUse