Triticum timopheevii

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Triticum timopheevii Zhuk.

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Order Poales
Family Gramineae
Genus Triticum

2n = 28, genome AAGG

Origin : Turkey to Transcaucasia and Iran

wild and cultivated

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This species is basically a hulled wheat with a dense and pyramidal spike. Spikelets may be one- or two-seeded. A mutant with naked seeds has been discovered by Zhukovsky and named Triticum militinae Zhuk. & Migush. (1969).

Popular names

  • English: Timopheev’s wheat
  • French: blé zanduri, blé de Timopheev
  • German: Sanduri-Weizen
  • Spanish: trigo de Georgia
  • Georgian: zanduri


Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. (1928)

  • synonyms:
    • T. dicoccoides Körn. subsp. armeniacum Jakubc. (1932)
    • T. araraticum Jakubc. (1947)
    • T. timopheevii Zhuk. subsp. araraticum (Jakubc.) MacKey (1966)].

The cultivated form is Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. subsp. timopheevii.

The wild form is Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. subsp. armeniacum (Jakubc.) A. & D. Löve (1961). It is quite impossible to distinguish morphologically from Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccoides, although both species are genetically isolated even when they grow together.



It is an endemic crop of the piedmonts of western Georgia.

The species has probably been domesticated in Georgia, where it was mostly grown mixed with Triticum monococcum, or as a weed of Triticum aestivum subsp. macha. Its role in wheat history is negligible, although it is one of the progenitors of Triticum zhukovskyi.



  • Zohary Daniel, Hopf Maria & Weiss Ehud, 2012. Domestication of plants in the Old World. Fourth Edition. Oxford, Oxford University Press. XVI-243 p.