Tamarix hispida (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

From PlantUse English
Jump to: navigation, search
Reaumuria alternifolia
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Tamarix hispida (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Ulmus densa
Tamarix hispida
Tamarix hispida

Tamarix hispida Willd.

Local name:

  • Russian: Гребенщик щетинистоволосый - grebenščik ščetinistovolosyj
  • Uzbek: Yulgun
  • Turkmen: Ilgyn
  • Kazakh: Djingil

Chromosome number: 2n = 24 (Bowden 1940).

Description and morphology: Tree or large bush (height 4–6 m), microphylous, polymorphic with reddish bark. Deep root system (to depth 6–8 m) with rhizomes and suckers. Stem: aerial branches strongly ramified, grey-brown, densely covered with hairy layer. Leaves: filamentous (appear articulate), small, scale-like, alternate without hairy stipules and thin layer or dots of salt. Flowers: bisexual; actinomorphic, small, compound perianth; often assembled into bright purple spikes or racemose inflorescence. Well developed nectar disk at base of petals, 4–10 stamens, varies, accreted at bases. Anthers ovoid-oblong with pointed appendage, introrse by longitudinal cracks. Pollen grains 2-celled. Ovary superior with numerous ovules. Ovule anatropous, bitegmic, crassi-nucellate.

Reproduction: Sexual and vegetative. Entomophilous and anemophilous. Flowering: June–September, on second year branches. Fruit maturation: August–October but open only next spring. Fruit: capsule many-seeded, conical, loculicidally dehiscent. Seed dispersion in spring indicates a strong desert adaptation.

Pastoral importance: Limited occasional grazing by small ruminants and gazelles, more readily accepted by camels and cattle. Useful fuelwood in saline environments; easily established by cuttings to restore vegetation in arid and semi-arid saline areas. Sand binder.

Fodder value: During growth, green forage contains (% DM): crude protein 10; fat 2.3; cellulose 20; ash 31; nitrogen-free extract 35. Bark, stems and leaves contain tannins (7–8%). Plant often covered with salt secretion; salt content of tissues (18–20%, up to 30%) increasing osmotic pressure from 13–18 atm, up to 55 atm.

Economic interest: Reforestation and sanddune fixation (on a high saline water table). Fuelwood, carpentry and building material. Source of tannins (up to 40% in galls). Local people use leaves as a treatment for respiratory disorders, rheumatism and arthritis. Bark and roots are used to treat gastric disturbance and disorders of the mouth. Salt-tolerant plant.

Habitat: Halophyte. Phreatophyte. Sandy to clay saline soils (on solonchak). Leaf shedding is important as leaves contain salt that induces soil sterilization and stabilization under trees or bushes. Common on river banks, terraces, saline flats and takyr, and on sand dunes on a high saline water table. Wind and salt-resistant.

Distribution: South-western Europe to Central Asia, North Africa, Near and Middle East. Naturalized in many semi-arid and arid countries with Mediterranean climate.