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Coriandrum sativum (PROSEA)

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[[File:Coriandrum sativum PROSEA linedrawing.png|thumb|1, flowering branch; 2, umbellet; 3, peripheral flower with enlarged petals; 4, central flower; 5, normal (non-enlarged) petal; 6, fruiting branch; 7, fruit; 8, seed]]
<big>''[[Coriandrum sativum]]'' L.</big>
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:Protologue: Sp. pl.: 256 (1753).
Coriander fruits are commonly used as a spice, being part of a large number of dishes. Ground coriander fruits are also an ingredient of spice mixtures like curry powder (containing up to 40% of coriander). In South-East Asia the leaves or the entire young plants are popular as culinary herb and vegetable, e.g. for chutneys or in soups. Taproots are also aromatic and are commonly used as a vegetable in China, Thailand and, to a lesser extent, in other South-East Asian countries. Green plants are dried for preservation and are traded on the world market as well as the fruits.
Coriander is used in folk medicine. It has been well known since antiquity. Green plants are applied in East Asia as a cure for measles. The fruits are reported to have carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant, anticatarrhal, antispasmodic, galactagogue, emmenagogue and aphrodisiac effects. The essential oil from the fruits is used in the flavour industry, for various basic and luxury foods, to some extent in medicine too, and in cosmetic perfumery. The extraction residues are used as feed for ruminants. In the United States the regulatory status "generally recognized as safe” safe" has been accorded to coriander fruits (GRAS 2333) and coriander fruit oil (GRAS 2334).
==Production and international trade==
==Ecology==
Germination of coriander occurs at temperatures above 4°C4 °C, but is optimal at 17-20°C 20 °C for genotypes with small fruits and at 22-27°C 27 °C for genotypes with larger fruits. Sowing is therefore possible at any time, provided that the water supply during the juvenile period is sufficient. After stem elongation coriander is sensitive to low temperatures but resistant to drought. Long days accelerate the generative development of coriander, but the effect is only minor. For successful fruit production the temperature sum during the vegetative period should be more than 1700°C and only high temperatures together with dry weather during ripening guarantee fruits of acceptable quality. Coriander for fruit production is found in tropical highlands, subtropics and temperate regions, while in the lowland tropics it is grown as a green herb. The soil should preferably be at least a sandy loam, but the crop will also grow well on loam and clay soils with good drainage. Sole cropping and intercropping, e.g. with legumes, are practised.
==Propagation and planting==
* Ivanova, K.V. & Stoletova, E.A., 1990. Istorija kul'tury i vnutrividovaja klassifikacija koriandra posevnogo (Coriandrum sativum L.) [The history of culture and intraspecific taxonomy of Coriandrum sativum L.]. Sbornik naucnych trudov prikladnoj botbotaniki, genetiki i selekcii 133: 26-40.
* Jansen, P.C.M., 1981. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (Pudoc), Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 56-67.
* Luk'janov, I.A. & Reznikov, A.R., 1976. Koriandr [Coriander]. In: Smoljanova, A.M. & Ksendza, A.T. (Editors): Efirnomaslicnye kul'tury. Kolos, Moskva, Russia. pp. 9-57. |6| * Palamarja, N.S. & Chotina, A.A. (Editors), 1953. Koriandr [Coriander]. Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo sel'skochozjaistvennoj literatury. Moskva, Russia. 118 pp. |7| * Potter, Th.L. & Fagerson, I.S., 1990. Composition of coriander leaf volatiles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 38: 2054-2056. |8| * The Wealth of India (various editors), 1948-1976. A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products: raw materials. Vol. 2. Publications and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India. pp. 347-350. |9| * van Harten, A.M., 1974. Koriander: de geschiedenis van een oud gewas [Coriander: the history of an old crop]. Landbouwkundig Tijdschrift 86(3): 58-64. == Sources of illustrations == Jansen, P.C.M., 1981. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation (Pudoc), Wageningen, the Netherlands. Fig. 6, p. 59 (normal petal, fruit); Mansfeld, R., 1986. Verzeichnis landwirtschaftlicher und gärtnerischer Kulturpflanzen (ohne Zierpflanzen) [Register of agricultural and horticultural plants in cultivation (without ornamentals)]. Schultze-Motel, J. et al., editors 2nd edition. Vol. 2. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany. Fig. 138, pp. 996--997 (flowering branch, umbellet, peripheral flower with enlarged petals, central flower, fruiting branch, seed). Redrawn and adapted by P. Verheij-Hayes.
== Authors ==
*A. Diederichsen & Rugayah
[[Category:Spices (PROSEA)]]
[[Category:PROSEA]]
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