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Erythrina fusca (PROSEA)

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<big>''[[Erythrina fusca]]'' Lour.</big>
:Protologue: Fl. Cochinch.: 427 (1790).
== Synonyms ==
*''Erythrina glauca'' Willd. (1801),
*''Erythrina ovalifolia'' Roxb. (1832),
*''Erythrina atrosanguinea'' Ridley (1911).
== Vernacular names ==
*Coral bean, purple coral tree, swamp immortelle (En)
*Bucayo (Am)
*Bois immortel, immortelle blanche (Fr)
*Indonesia: cangkring (Javanese, Sundanese), kane (Sulawesi)
*Malaysia: dedap, dadap
*Philippines: anii (Tagalog), korung-korung (Bisaya)
*Papua New Guinea: maor (Lamekot), vatamida (Ugana)
*Cambodia: rolouohs p-ông'
*Laos: th'o:ng hla:ng
*Thailand: thong lang nam, thong long (central)
*Vietnam: vông dông (Ho Chi Minh), vông gai (Quang Nam), cây son dong (Anamese).
== Distribution ==
''E. fusca'' is the most widespread species in the genus occurring wild in both the Old and New World tropics. In Asia and Oceania it occurs along coasts and rivers from India to the Philippines, New Guinea and Polynesia; in Africa it occurs in Madagascar, the Mascarene Islands, the Comoro Islands and Pemba Island, but not in continental Africa. Furthermore in Central and South America in the West Indies, throughout the Amazon basin, and along the coast of Brazil, Colombia, up to Honduras and Guatemala; planted throughout the humid tropics.
== Uses ==
In Indonesia the scraped inner bark is used for poulticing fresh wounds, and bark or root decoctions are applied against beri-beri. The grated wood is used to treat haematuria; the root is used for rheumatism; bark and leaves serve as vermifuge. In Thailand, roots, bark and leaves are used as an antipyretic. In Vietnam, the bark is used to treat toothache. The young leaves are eaten as a vegetable in Java and Bali, as are the flowers in Guatemala. In Central America, the leaves are a source of animal fodder.
== Observations ==
*A medium to large, spreading tree, 10-15(-26) m tall, crown rounded, trunk short, spiny, much branched, sometimes with buttresses up to 2 m.
*Petiole up to 25 cm long, stipules orbicular, rachis up to 5 cm long, leaflets ovate to elliptical, 2.5-20 cm × 1.5-15 cm, rounded or subacute at both ends, subcoriaceous, glabrous to velvety hairy, petiolule up to 1.5 cm long, stipels orbicular.
*Inflorescence racemose, terminal, appearing when leaves are present, peduncle up to 13 cm long.
*Flowers in fascicles scattered along the rachis, covered with deciduous, ferruginous hairs, pale brick-red or salmon (rarely white), pedicel up to 2 cm long, calyx asymmetrical, broadly campanulate, about 1.5 cm long, lacerate or subentire but with a 0.5-1.5 mm long spur on the keel side, pubescent; standard rounded-rhombic, 4-7 cm × 3.5-6 cm, orange or scarlet, claw 9 mm long, keel slightly longer than the wings, both about half the length of the standard, stamens 4-6 cm long, subdiadelphous, 1 free, 9 united in lower half into staminal tube.
*Fruit a woody, linear, compressed pod, 14-33 cm × 1.5-2 cm, on a stout stalk 1.5 cm long, slightly constricted between the 3-15 seeds, velvety ferruginously hairy when young, later glabrescent, dehiscent.
*Seed oblong-ellipsoid, 12-18 mm × 5-8 mm, dark brown or black.
== Selected sources ==
* Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint. 2 volumes. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240, Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
273, 407, 786, 1038. medicinals
== Authors ==
*Undang A. Dasuki
[[Category:Medicinal plants (PROSEA)]]
[[Category:Timbers (PROSEA)]]
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