Poa bulbosa (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Phragmites communis
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Poa bulbosa (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Stipa hohenackeriana
Poa bulbosa
Poa bulbosa
Poa bulbosa, base of bulbous culm

Poa bulbosa L.

Local name:

  • Russian: Мятлик луковичный, конгурбаш - mjatlik lukovičnyj, kongurbaš
  • Uzbek: Komirbash, Yarpagan, Kongurb-Ash
  • Turkmen: Kyrtych, Kongurbash
  • Kazakh: Kongurbas

Chromosome number: 2n = 14, 39, 42, 45 (Skalinska et al. 1957); 2n = 14, 28, 45 (Hubbard 1954); 2n = 56 (Nygren 1957; Fedorov 1969).

Description and morphology: Perennial ephemeroid short grass (often a short 3–8 cm green carpet) with spring vegetation cycle. Superficial dense filamentous root. Stem: glabrous (10–30 cm). Leaves: flat, oblong, sharp, blades linear, long acuminate, sheaths glabrous, curled mainly around stem base; base of culm bulbous. Flowers: bisexual; strongly reduced organs, flower head narrow compact in panicle. Anthers ellipsoid-oblong form opened extrorse. Pollen grains 3-celled, monoporous. High dimorphism of male (gametophyte). Ovary with one anacampylotrotrous, unitegmic, crassi-nucellate ovule on short funiculus. Nucellar cap, integument and hypostase with specific structure.

Reproduction: Sexual and vegetative (rhizomes). Reduced parthenogenesis, somatical apospory, adventive embryony. Cross-anemophilous; self-pollination rare. Strongly viviparous; all or parts of florets turn into leafy chlorophytic buds falling to ground and developing leaflets and rootlets. Flowering: springearly summer. Fruit: caryopsis indehiscent dry, monospermous. Sclerified pericarp closely accreted to seeds. Fruit embraced in lemma. Seed: small embryo and well developed endosperm. Embryo erect, highly differentiated, leucophytic. Dormancy B1 type. Germination low: 24–45%. Light-sensitive. Seed viability 8–9 years. Long-term seed stratification (5 °C, darkness) for 12 months, stimulates germination.

Pastoral importance: A key forage on Uzbek rangeland. Excellent forage accepted by all livestock. Withstands overgrazing and trampling. Grows from early February to middle of April, then dries up, and from then onwards available as an excellent dry forage. On good soil, expected biomass is up to about 0.5– 1.0 t DM/ha. In Uzbekistan, selected cultivar ‘Rohat’ may yield up to 0.8–1.0 t DM/ha.

Fodder value: During vegetative development contains (% DM): crude protein 17; cellulose 26; rich in carotin. Forage value estimated about 65 FU and 4.9 kg digestible protein/ 100 kg DM.

Habitat: Widespread on clay, loamy and stable sandy soils; sometimes even present in slightly saline areas.

Distribution: Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, Caucasus, southern Europe, West Siberia, Mongolia, Iran, East Mediterranean to Syrian steppe and Sinai (Egypt).