Papaver pavoninum (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Hypecoum parviflorum
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Papaver pavoninum (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Roemeria orientalis
Papaver pavoninum
Papaver pavoninum

Papaver pavoninum Schrenk

Local name:

  • Russian: Мак пестрый (дикий мак, мак павлиний) - mak pestryj (dikij mak, mak pavlinnij)
  • Uzbek: Lolakizgaldok, Kizil kuknor
  • Turkmen: Gyulalek
  • Tadjik: Lolakazak

Chromosome number: 2n = 12 (Sugiura 1936).

Description and morphology: Annual ephemeral herb (10–35 cm). Stem: cylindrical, erect or slightly ascending, hispid-setose with latex. Leaves: large, alternate oblong, long-petiolate, 1–3-pinnatipartite, ex-stipulate, sometimes in rosettes. Flowers: bisexual; actinomorphic, large, red, terminal, solitary or assembled into racemiform inflorescence. Sepals 2 or 3 free, caducous. Petals 4–6 free, usually crumpled in bud. 2–4 or uncertain numbers stamens free, spirally arranged. Ovary superior of 2 or more connate carpels with parietal placenta often forming false septa; unilocular, few or many ovules. Style short; stigma equalling number of carpels. Vegetative growth begins in March. Drying occurs in June when it disappears from grass stands.

Reproduction: Entomophilous, but anemophilous or auto-pollination can also occur. Flowering and fruit maturation: middle of April–May. Fruit: hard capsule, many seeds escape from pore. Seed: reniform with minute embryo surrounded by large, mealy or oily endosperm. Dormancy Af–A1 type. Light-sensitive. Germination: 36–48%. Long-term cold stratification stimulates germination.

Pastoral importance: Information on palatability inconsistent; some report that large quantities of P. pavoninum in hay makes it unpalatable; others indicate that it is well eaten by sheep and even highly energy-providing. Capsules (fruits) before seed ripening and in dry condition are poisonous.

Fodder value: At flowering contains (% DM): ash 12; crude protein 19; fat 3.1; cellulose 20; nitrogen-free extract 45. At green stage, contains alkaloids and caustic, often bitter, and harmful latex.

Habitat: Widely distributed as a weed in the Poa-Carex range of the adyr, on foothills and plains, on well-fixed sand, mainly in dune depressions and under bushes.

Distribution: Central Asia, Europe, South Russia, Caucasus, South-east Asia and North Africa.