PROSEA, Literature Exudates

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  • Achmad, B., 1998. Factors determining Styrax development and future trends in North Sumatra. Buletin Penelitian Kehutanan (Pematang Siantar) 13: 291-304.
  • Bureau of Export Trade and Promotions (the Philippines), 1997. Market/s of Philippines merchandise exports. Bureau of Export Trade and Promotions, Department of Trade and Industry, Makati, Metro Manila, the Philippines. Excerpt.
  • Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd Edition. Ministry of Agriculture and Co operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240, Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
  • Callo, R.A., 1995. Damage to almaciga resources in Puerto Princessa and Roxas, Palawan concessions. Canopy International 20(3-4): 4-9.
  • Compagnon, P., 1986. Le caoutchouc naturel: biologie, culture, production [Natural rubber: biology, cultivation, production]. Techniques agricoles et productions tropicales 35. Maisonneuve & Larose, Paris, France. 595 pp.
  • Coppen, J.J.W., 1995a. Flavours and fragrances of plant origin. Non-wood forest products 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 101 pp.
  • Coppen, J.J.W., 1995b. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Non-wood forest products 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 142 pp.
  • Coppen, J.J.W., 1999. Benzoin: production, uses and international trade. Perfumer & Flavorist 24(3): 11-12, 14-18, 20-22.
  • Coppen, J.J.W. & Hone, G.A., 1995. Gum naval stores: turpentine and rosin from pine resin. Non-wood forest products 2. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, United Kingdom & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 62 pp.
  • de Foresta, H. & Michon, G., 1994. Agroforests in Sumatra - where ecology meets economy. Agroforestry Today 6(4): 12-13.
  • Ella, A.B., 2000. Inducement of almaciga resin production by Ethrel application. Unpublished terminal report. Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna, the Philippines.
  • Ella, A.B. & Tongacan, A.L., 1992. Techniques in tapping almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.) for sustained productivity of the tree: the Philippine experience. FPRDI (Forest Products Research and Development Institute) Journal 21(1-2): 73-79.
  • Ella, A.B., Tongacan, A.L. & Fernandez, E.C., 1996. Improvement in tapping of Philippine Canarium trees for Manila elemi. The Philippine Technology Journal 21(2): 22-46.
  • Ella, A.B., Tongacan, A.L. & Javier, I.M., 1998a. Proper techniques in tapping almaciga (Agathis philippinensis Warb.). Pamphlet No 1. Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna, the Philippines & International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama, Japan. 8 pp.
  • Ella, A.B., Tongacan, A.L. & Javier, I.M., 1998b. Proper techniques in tapping Canarium species (pili group). Pamphlet No 2. Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna, the Philippines & International Tropical Timber Organization, Yokohama, Japan. 7 pp.
  • Espiloy, Z.B., 1973. Oleoresin. Forpridecom Technical Note No 138. Forest Products Research and Industries Development Commission, National Science Development Board, College, Laguna, the Philippines.
  • Fahn, A., 1979. Secretory tissues in plants. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom. 302 pp.
  • Garcia, G.M.C., Ella, A.B., Torreta, N.K., Vergara, R.S. & Decena, L.A., 1999. Marketing system of almaciga resin in the Philippines - terminal report. Unpublished terminal report. Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna, the Philippines. 19 pp. + appendices.
  • Gianno, R., 1986. Resin classification among the Semalai of Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia. Economic Botany 40(2): 186-200.
  • Gonzales, E.V., Moredo Jr., C.C. & Moredo, F.C., 1991. Modified almaciga (Agathis philippinensis) resin for paint manufacture. FPRDI (Forest Products Research and Development Institute) Journal 20(1-2): 10-28.
  • Heyne, K., 1927. De nuttige planten van Nederlands Indië [The useful plants of the Dutch East Indies]. 2nd Edition, 3 volumes. Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel in Nederlandsch Indië. 1953 pp. (3rd Edition, 1950. W. van Hoeve, 's-Gravenhage, the Netherlands / Bandung, Indonesia. 1660 pp.).
  • Hillis, W.E., 1987. Heartwood and tree exudates. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany. 268 pp.
  • Hosler, D., Burkett, S.L. & Tarkanian, M.J., 1999. Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient Mesoamerica. Science 284: 1988-1991.
  • Howes, F.N., 1949. Vegetable gums and resins. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. 188 pp.
  • Hübner, G., 1934. Kautschuk - eine wirtschafstsgeographische Monographie [Natural rubber - an economic geographical monograph]. Verlag Dr. Bodenbender, Berlin-Steglitz, Germany. 258 pp.
  • Jara, J.C., 1999. Hope for Canarium trees: improving tapping for resin. PCARRD Monitor 27(1): 9.
  • Lawrence, A.A., 1976. Natural gums for edible purposes. Food Technology Review No 36. Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey, United States. 338 pp.
  • Metcalfe, C.R., 1967. Distribution of latex in the plant kingdom. Economic Botany 21: 115-127.

Michon, G.M. & Bompard, J.M., 1985. The damar gardens (Shorea javanica) in Sumatera. In: Kostermans, A.J.G.H. (Editor): Proceedings of the third round table conference in dipterocarps. Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia. pp. 3-17.

  • Mule, E.I., 1977. Gums and mucilages. Forpridecom Technical Note No 180. Forest Products Research and Industries Development Commission, National Science Development Board, College, Laguna, the Philippines. 2 pp.
  • Oyen, L.P.A. & Nguyen Xuan Dung (Editors), 1999. Plant resources of South-East Asia No 19. Essential-oil plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, the Netherlands. 277 pp.
  • Pamplona, B.S., Tavita, Y.L., Silva, A.A. & Ambagan, N.G., 1990. Evaluation of ipil-ipil seed gum as a strengthening chemical for paper. FPRDI (Forest Products Research and Development Institute) Journal 19(1-4): 1-14.
  • Rehm, S. & Espig, G., 1991. The cultivated plants of the tropics and subtropics. Cultivation, economic value, utilization. Technical Centre for Agriculture and Rural Co-operation (CTA), Ede, the Netherlands & Verlag Josef Margraf, Weikersheim, Germany. 552 pp.
  • Rumphius, G.E., 1741-1747. Herbarium Amboinense / Het Amboinsche Kruid-boek [The Ambonese herbal]. 7 volumes. Joannes Burmannus, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Vol. 1: XXXIII + 200 pp., Vol. 2: 270 pp., Vol. 3: 218 pp., Vol. 4: 154 pp., vol. 5: IV + 492 pp., vol. 6: III + 256 pp., vol. 7: 74 pp. + XXI (Index Universalis).
  • Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors), 1993. Plant resources of South-East Asia No 5(1). Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands. 610 pp.
  • Tavita, Y.L. and Palanginan, I., 1999. Formulation of varnish using almaciga (Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Rich) resin obtained from different sources/localities. Terminal Report. Forest Products Research and Development Institute, Department of Science and Technology, College, Laguna, the Philippines.
  • Torquebiau, E., 1984. Man made dipterocarp forest in Sumatra. Agroforestry Systems 2(2): 103-127.
  • Tschirch, A. & Stock, E., 1933. Die Harze. Die botanischen und chemischen Grundlagen unserer Kenntnisse über die Bildung, die Entwicklung und die Zusammensetzung der pflanlichen Exkrete. Band 1. [Resins. The botanical and chemical fundamentals of our knowledge on the formation, development and composition of plant exudates. Volume 1.]. Verlag Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin, Germany. 418 pp.
  • van de Koppel, C., 1950. Benzoë [Benzoin]. In: van Hall, C.J.J. & van de Koppel, C. (Editors): De landbouw in de Indische archipel. Deel 3. Industriële gewassen - register. W. van Hoeve, 's-Gravenhage, the Netherlands. pp. 654-685.
  • van Gelder, A., 1950. Guttapercha [Gutta-percha]. In: van Hall, C.J.J. & van de Koppel, C. (Editors): De landbouw in de Indische archipel. Deel 3: Industriële gewassen - register. W. van Hoeve, ‘s-Gravenhage, the Netherlands. pp. 476-520.
  • van Romburgh, P., 1900. Caoutchouc en getah-pertja in Nederlands-Indië [Rubber and gutta-percha in the Dutch East Indies]. Mededeelingen uit ‘s-Lands Plantentuin. No 39. G. Kolff & Co., Batavia, the Dutch East Indies. 209 pp.
  • Watanabe, H., Abe, K.I., Kawai, K. & Siburian, P., 1996. Sustained use of highland forest stands for benzoin production from Styrax in north Sumatra, Indonesia. Wallaceana 78: 15-19.
  • Webster, C.C. & Baulkwill, W.J. (Editors), 1989. Rubber. Longman Scientific & Technical, Harlow, United Kingdom. 614 pp.
  • West, A.P. & Brown, W.H., 1921. Philippine resins, gums, seed oils, and essential oils. In: Brown, W.H. (Editor): Minor products of Philippine forests. Vol. 2. Bulletin No 22. Bureau of Forestry, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Bureau of Printing, Manila, Philippine Islands. pp. 5-224.
  • Williams, L., 1963. Laticiferous plants of economic importance IV: Jelutong (Dyera spp.). Economic Botany 17(2): 110-126.

Minor species

Sources of literature of the Exudates volume
for minor species


  • 1. Airy Shaw, H.K., 1967. Notes on Malaysian and other Asiatic Euphorbiaceae. Kew Bulletin 20: 379-415.
  • 2. Algemeen Landbouwweekblad voor Nederlandsch Indië, 1935. Rubber leverende planten in Ned. Indië [Rubber producing plants in the Dutch East Indies]. Algemeen Landbouwweekblad voor Nederlandsch Indië 19: 574-576, 597-598, 605-608.
  • 3. Arentz, F., Keating, W.G. & Ilic, J., 1993. Araucaria A.L. Jussieu. In: Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors): Plant resources of South East Asia No 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, the Netherlands. pp. 108-114.
  • 4. Audas, J.W., 1955. Native trees of Australia. Whitcomber & Tombs, Melbourne, Sydney, Perth, Geelong, Australia. 396 pp.
  • 5. Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr, R.C., 1964-1968. Flora of Java. 3 Volumes. Noordhoff, Groningen, the Netherlands. Vol. 1. 647 pp., Vol. 2. 641 pp., Vol. 3. 761 pp.
  • 6. Backer, C.A. & van Slooten, D.F., 1924. Geïllustreerd handboek der Javaansche theeonkruiden en hunne betekenis voor de cultuur [Illustrated handbook of weeds of Javanese tea plantations and their significance for tea-growing]. Ruygrok, Batavia, Dutch East Indies. 308 pp.
  • 7. Berg, C.C., 1972. Olmedieae, Brosimeae (Moraceae). Flora Neotropica. Monograph No 7. Hafner Publishing Company, New York, United States. 229 pp.
  • 8. Berkhout, A.H., 1906. De ervaringen der laatste jaren en de vooruitzichten op het gebied van de caoutchouc cultuur in de Nederlandsche overzeesche gewesten [Experiences of the last few years and prospects of rubber cultivation in the Dutch colonies]. De Bussy, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 24 pp.
  • 9. Boland, D.J. et al., 1984. Forest trees of Australia. Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Australia. 687 pp.
  • 10. Brown, W.H., 1951-1957. Useful plants of the Philippines. Reprint of the 1941-1943 edition. 3 Volumes. Technical Bulletin 10. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Bureau of Printing, Manila. Vol. 1(1951) 590 pp., Vol. 2 (1954) 513 pp., Vol. 3 (1957) 507 pp.
  • 11. Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. 2nd Edition. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240, Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
  • 12. Burkill, H.M., 1985-2000. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 6 Volumes. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, United Kingdom.
  • 13. Ciesla, W.M., 1998. Non wood forest products from conifers. Non wood forest products 12. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 124 pp.
  • 14. Coppen, J.J.W., 1995. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Non-wood forest products 6. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. 142 pp.
  • 15. Cremer, K.W. (Editor), 1990. Trees for rural Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sydney, Australia. 455 pp.
  • 16. Dallimore, W. & Jackson, A.B., 1966. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. 4th Edition. Revised by S.G. Harisson. Edward Arnold Ltd., London, United Kingdom. 729 pp.
  • 17. Dassanayake, M.D. & Fosberg, F.R. (Editors), 1980-. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Amerind Publishing Company, New Delhi, India.
  • 18. De Wit, H.C.D., 1949. Revision of the genus Sindora Miquel (Legum.). Bulletin of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Series 3, 18: 5-82.
  • 19. Duke, J.A., 1981. Handbook of legumes of world economic importance. Plenum Press, New York, United States and London, United Kingdom. 345 pp.
  • 20. Hallier, H., 1900. Ueber Kautschuklianen und andere Apocyneen, nebst Bemerkungen über Hevea und einen Versuch zur Lösung der Nomenklaturfrage [About rubber lianas and other Apocynaceae, in addition to remarks on Hevea and an attempt to solve its nomenclatural problem]. Aus dem Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten 17, 1899. 3. Beiheft: Arbeiten des Botanischen Museums. Lucas Gräfe & Sillem, Hamburg, Germany. 216 pp.
  • 21. Hansen, B., 1976. Balanophoraceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (Editor): Flora Malesiana. Series 1, Vol. 7(4). Noordhoff, Leiden, the Netherlands. pp. 783-805.
  • 22. Heyl, C.J.W., 1901. Vermenigvuldiging der voornaamste caoutchouc en gutta percha leverende planten [Propagation of the most important rubber and gutta percha yielding plants]. Teysmannia 11: 167-172.
  • 23. Heyne, K., 1927. De nuttige planten van Nederlands Indië [The useful plants of the Dutch East Indies]. 2nd Edition, 3 volumes. Departement van Landbouw, Nijverheid en Handel in Nederlandsch Indië. 1953 pp. (3rd Edition, 1950. van Hoeve, 's Gravenhage, the Netherlands / Bandung, Indonesia. 1660 pp.).
  • 24. Hooker, J.D., 1872-1897. The flora of British India. 7 Volumes. L. Reeve & Co., London, United Kingdom.
  • 25. Howes, F.N, 1949. Vegetable gums and resins. Chronica Botanica Company, Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. 188 pp.
  • 26. Hsuan Keng, 1990. The concise flora of Singapore. Gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Singapore University Press, Singapore. 222 pp.
  • 27. Jumelle, H., 1903. Les plantes à caoutchouc et à gutta. Exploitation, culture et commerce dans tous les pays chauds [The rubber and gutta-producing plants. Exploitation, cultivation and trade in all warm countries]. A. Challamel, Paris, France. 543 pp.
  • 28. Lam, H.J., 1925. The Sapotaceae, Sarcospermaceae and Boerlagellaceae of the Dutch East Indies and surrounding countries (Malay Peninsula and Philippine Islands). Bulletin du Jardin Botanique Buitenzorg, Series 3, Vol. 7: 1-289.
  • 29. Leenhouts, P.W., 1962. Loganiaceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (Editor): Flora Malesiana. Series 1, Vol. 6. Wolters Noordhoff Publishing, Groningen, the Netherlands. pp. 299-336.
  • 30. Markgraf, F., 1971. Florae Malesianae praecursores 51. Apocynaceae 1. Blumea 19: 149-166.
  • 31. Middleton, D.J., 1993. A taxonomic revision of Willughbeia Roxb. (Apocynaceae). Blumea 38: 1-24.
  • 32. Middleton, D.J., 1994. A revision of Ichnocarpus (Apocynaceae). Blumea 39: 73-94.
  • 33. Middleton, D.J., 1996. A revision of Aganonerion Pierre ex Spire, Parameria Benth. & Hook.f. and Urceola Roxb. (Apocynaceae). Blumea 41: 69-22.
  • 34. Middleton, D.J., 1999. Apocynaceae. In: Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (Editors): Flora of Thailand. Vol. 7(1). The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 1-153.
  • 35. Purseglove, J.W., 1968-1972. Tropical Crops. Longman, London, United Kingdom. Dicotyledons. 2 Volumes (1968) 719 pp. Monocotyledons. 2 Volumes (1972) 607 pp.
  • 36. Ridley, H.N., 1922-1925. The flora of the Malay Peninsula. 5 Volumes. Government of the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States. L. Reeve & Co., London, United Kingdom.
  • 37. Rogers, D.J. & Appan, S.G., 1973. Manihot and Manihotoides (Euphorbiaceae). Flora Neotropica, Monograph 13. Hafner Press, New York, United States. 272 pp.
  • 38. Smartt, J. & Simmonds, N.W., 1995. Evolution of crop plants. 2nd Edition. Longman Scientific and Technical, London, United Kingdom. 531 pp.
  • 39. Smith, A.C., 1979. Flora vitiensis nova [A new flora of Fiji]. Vol. 1. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, SB Printers, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States. 495 pp.
  • 40. van Romburgh, P., 1899. Over caoutchouc leverende boomen. 1. Castilloa elastica Cerv. [On rubber yielding trees. 1. Castilloa elastica Cerv.]. Teysmannia 9: 1-16.
  • 41. van Romburgh, P., 1899. Over caoutchouc leverende boomen. 3. Manihot glaziovii Müll. Arg [On rubber yielding trees. 3. Manihot glaziovii Müll. Arg]. Teysmannia 9: 245-252.
  • 42. van Romburgh, P., 1900. Caoutchouc en getah-pertja in Nederlandsch-Indië [Rubber and gutta-percha in the Dutch East Indies]. Mededeelingen uit 's Lands Plantentuin 39: 1-209.
  • 43. van Royen, P., 1960. Revision of the Sapotaceae of the Malayan area in a wider sense 20. Madhuca Gmelin. Blumea 10: 1-117.
  • 44. Walker, G.T., 1968. Balsam of Peru. Perfumery and Essential Oil Record 59: 705-707.
  • 45. Whitmore, T.C. & Ng, F.S.P. (Editors), 1972-1989. Tree flora of Malaya. A manual for foresters. 4 Volumes. 2nd Edition. Malayan Forest Records No 26. Longman Malaysia Sdn. Berhad, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

E. Boer & P.C.M. Jansen