Merremia kentrocaulos (PROTA)

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Plant Resources of Tropical Africa
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Merremia kentrocaulos (C.B.Clarke) Hallier f.


distribution in Africa (wild)
Protologue: Oliv., Fl. Trop. Afr. 4(2): 103 (1905).
Family: Convolvulaceae

Vernacular names

  • Rough-stemmed morning-glory (En).

Origin and geographic distribution

Merremia kentrocaulos occurs from Senegal eastward to Somalia and southwards to South Africa. It is also found in tropical Asia, Australia and the Pacific.

Uses

In Senegal a decoction of the whole plant, together with Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth.) Meeuwen, is drunk to treat ailments of the liver and gall bladder. In Tanzania a decoction of the roots is drunk against fever.

Properties

Merremia kentrocaulos contains numerous aromatic 3α -acyloxytropanes, such as convolamine (3α-veratroyloxytropane) and phyllalbine (3α -vanilloyloxytropane). Four ipomeamarone-like furano-sesquiterpenes, merrekentrones A, B, C and D have been isolated from the roots. Some of these compounds are interesting because of their structural closeness to compounds with fungicidal activity.

Description

  • Large, almost glabrous, twining perennial with tuberous rootstock.
  • Older stems woody, younger stems herbaceous, terete, with reddish papillae.
  • Leaves alternate or spirally arranged, simple; petiole 3–7 cm long; blade pentagonal in outline, 4–13 cm long and wide, palmately dissected nearly to the base, base cordate; lobes 5–7, elliptical, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, up to 6.5 cm × 2 cm, acute.
  • Inflorescence an axillary, 1–few-flowered cyme; peduncle almost erect, 3–8 cm long; bracteoles ovate, early deciduous.
  • Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous; pedicel up to 3 cm long, at first deflexed, almost erect when the flowers open and nodding in fruit; sepals ovate-oblong, up to 3 cm long, apex obtuse, glabrous, concave, somewhat unequal, enlarging in fruit; corolla funnel-shaped, 3.5–5.5 cm long, yellow or white with dark purple centre, glabrous, limb faintly pentagonal, plicate, lobes bluntly triangular; stamens included; ovary superior, 2–4-celled, style simple, filiform, stigma biglobular.
  • Fruit a narrowly ellipsoid capsule, 1.2–1.6 cm long, at first enclosed in the accrescent, brown and coriaceous calyx, exposed just before dehiscence when sepals spread out, pale brown.
  • Seeds 6–8 mm long, brown to black, minutely hairy.

Other botanical information

Merremia comprises about 80 species throughout the tropics. It is closely related to Ipomoea differing essentially by having smooth pollen. Some authors recognize 2 varieties in Merremia kentrocaulos: the typical variety with entire or minutely crenulate leaf lobes, and var. pinnatifida N.E.Br. with deeply pinnatifid leaf lobes. Merremia kentrocaulos is sometimes confused with Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle, a native of the Americas, occurring and often naturalized in tropical Asia, and southern and eastern Africa and Madagascar.

Several other Merremia species are used medicinally in tropical Africa.

Merremia dissecta

Merremia dissecta (Jacq.) Hallier f. is a perennial, slender twiner, with white flowers with a rosy purple throat, originally from the Americas, but now widely distributed in the warmer parts of the world. The plant has numerous medicinal uses in various parts of the world. In Nigeria an infusion of the leaves is a major ingredient of snake-bite medicines internally taken or externally applied. An infusion of the leaves is taken as a sedative for chest complaints. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental. In Nigeria, the plant is reported to keep snakes away from houses where it is grown. Because of their smell the leaves of Merremia dissecta are used to flavour liqueurs in India.

Merremia gorinii

Merremia gorinii Chiov. is a perennial creeper or twiner with yellowish to orange-red flowers with darker centre. It occurs in the Horn of Africa and Kenya. In Somalia the root is used as suppository against haemorrhoids.

Merremia hederacea

Merremia hederacea (Burm.f.) Hallier f. is a twining or creeping herb with yellow or white flowers, occurring in tropical Asia, Australia and some Pacific islands. In Africa it occurs dispersed from Senegal to Somalia and southward to Mozambique, Madagascar and the Mascarene islands. In Burkina Faso the plant is used along with Sclerocarya birrea Hochst. in fortune-telling. In India it is commonly used to treat colds, fever, sunstroke, laryngitis and leucorrhoea. The seeds are used to treat fevers, colds, sore throats, haematuria, conjunctivitis and boils. Leaves are made into a poultice with turmeric and broken rice to apply to chapped hands and feet. In Kordofan (Sudan) the long slender stems are used to tie loads to saddles of pack animals. Stock will graze it. It is worthy of cultivation because of its beautiful flowers.

Merremia peltata

Merremia peltata (L.) Merr. is a large liana with white or yellow flowers, with a pantropical distribution, especially the Old World tropics. In Africa it occurs in the Indian Ocean islands. In Madagascar the plant sap is given to small children to ease breathing. It is also taken against diarrhoea and intestinal worms. It is planted as an ornamental because of its flowers and unusual leaves. The tuber can be cooked and eaten but it is considered purgative as well.

Merremia tuberosa

Merremia tuberosa (L.) Rendle is a robust twiner, native of the tropical Americas and cultivated for its ornamental flowers in West Africa and other tropical countries. The woody fruits can be used in dry flower arrangements. The tuber is a drastic purgative and has been used as an adulterant for ‘jalap resin’ obtained from Ipomoea dumosa (Benth.) L.O.Williams in Central America.

Merremia umbellata

Merremia umbellata (L.) Hallier f., called ‘hogvine’ in English, is a perennial ornamental twiner with bright yellow or white flowers occurring throughout the tropics. There are 2 subspecies: subsp. umbellata occurs in West Africa and the Americas, and subsp. orientalis (Hallier f.) Oostr. occurs in eastern Africa and Asia. In Asia the leaves made into poultices are applied to festering wounds and burns and the root is used as laxative. Also in Asia the young leaves are eaten as a vegetable. In Ghana the plant acts as sand-binder on beaches.

Merremia xanthophylla

Merremia xanthophylla Hallier f. is a polymorphic herb with prostrate or trailing stems and pale yellow to whitish flowers. Its distribution is incompletely known but includes Sudan, Ethiopia, Zambia and Zimbabwe. In Sudan a root extract is drunk against convulsions.

Ecology

Merremia kentrocaulos grows in open forest, e.g. in dry mopane- Acacia scrub or woodland, and in savanna on sandy or rocky soils from sea-level up to 1300 m altitude. It is sometimes a weed in rice fields.

Propagation and planting

Merremia kentrocaulos is propagated by seed.

Genetic resources

Merremia kentrocaulos is widespread and not in danger of genetic erosion.

Prospects

A comprehensive review of Merremia and related genera is wanted. Merremia kentrocaulos is likely to remain locally of some medicinal value. More research is needed to evaluate the phytochemical compounds isolated from the plant.

Major references

  • Garcia, M.A., Demissew, S. & Thulin, M., 2006. Convolvulaceae. In: Thulin, M. (Editor). Flora of Somalia. Volume 3. Angiospermae (cont.). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. pp. 221–258.
  • Gonçalves, M.L., 1987. Convolvulaceae. In: Launert, E. (Editor). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 8, part 1. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London, United Kingdom. pp. 9–129.
  • Heine, H., 1963. Convolvulaceae. In: Hepper, F.N. (Editor). Flora of West Tropical Africa. Volume 2. 2nd Edition. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 335–352.
  • Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
  • Verdcourt, B., 1963. Convolvulaceae. In: Hubbard, C.E. & Milne-Redhead, E. (Editors). Flora of Tropical East Africa. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. 161 pp.

Other references

  • Austin, D.F., 1998. Xixicamátic or wood rose (Merremia tuberosa, Convolvulaceae): origins and dispersal. Economic Botany 52(4): 412–422.
  • Austin, D.A., 2007. Merremia dissecta (Convolvulaceae): condiment, medicine, ornamental, and weed: a review. Economic Botany 61(2): 109–120.
  • Gryparis, C., Lykakis, I.N., Efe, C., Zaravinos, I.-P., Vidali, T., Kladou, E. & Stratakis, M., 2011. Functionalized 3(2H)-furanones via photooxygenation of (ß-keto)-2- substituted furans: application to the biomimetic synthesis of merrekentrone C. Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry 9(16): 5655–5658.
  • Jenett-Siems, K., Siems, K., Witte, L. & Eich, E., 2001. Merrekentrones A-D, ipomeamarone-like furanosesquiterpenes from Merremia kentrocaulos. Journal of Natural Products 64(11): 1471–1473.
  • Jennet-Siems, J.K., Weigl, R., Böhm, A., Mann, P., Tofern-Reblin, B., Ott, S.C., Ghomian, A., Kaloga, M., Siems, K., Witte, L., Hilker, M., Müller, F. & Eich, E., 2005. Chemotaxonomy of the pantropical genus Merremia (Convolvulaceae) based on the distribution of tropane alkaloids. Phytochemistry 66: 1448–1464.
  • Kerharo, J. & Adam, J.G., 1974. La pharmacopée sénégalaise traditionnelle. Plantes médicinales et toxiques. Vigot & Frères, Paris, France. 1011 pp.
  • Kokwaro, J.O., 1993. Medicinal plants of East Africa. 2nd Edition. Kenya Literature Bureau, Nairobi, Kenya. 401 pp.
  • Mansfeld, R., 1986. Verzeichnis landwirtschaftlicher und gärtnerischer Kulturpflanzen (ohne Zierpflanzen). 2nd edition, revised by J. Schultze-Motel. 4 volumes. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany. 1998 pp.
  • Muhammad Mansur, 2001. Merremia Dennst. ex Endl. In: van Valkenburg, J.L.C.H. & Bunyapraphatsara, N. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 366–373.
  • Watt, J.M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M.G., 1962. The medicinal and poisonous plants of southern and eastern Africa. 2nd Edition. E. and S. Livingstone, London, United Kingdom. 1457 pp.

Author(s)

  • L.P.A. Oyen, PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands

Correct citation of this article

Oyen, L.P.A., 2013. Merremia kentrocaulos (C.B.Clarke) Rendle. In: Schmelzer, G.H. & Gurib-Fakim, A. (Editors). Prota 11(2): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales 2. PROTA, Wageningen, Netherlands. Accessed 14 July 2021.