Mangifera decandra (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
Introduction
List of species


Mangifera decandra Ding Hou

Protologue: Reinwardtia 8: 323, fig. 1 (1972).
Family: Anacardiaceae

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: bienjai, kemang badak (Sumatra), konyot, palong besi (Kalimantan)
  • Malaysia: beluno, binjay, binjai hutan, belunu hutan (Sabah), mawong (Sarawak).

Distribution

Sumatra, Borneo (mainly in Sabah). Sometimes also cultivated.

Uses

The wood is reputed to be used. The fruit is edible but sour and fibrous.

Observations

  • A medium-sized, sometimes large tree up to 30(-50) m tall, with bole branchless for up to 20 m and up to 90(-110) cm in diameter, buttresses absent, bark surface initially smooth with longitudinal rows of lenticels, developing into narrow cracks and later regularly fissured, reddish-brown.
  • Leaves elliptical-oblong to obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, (17-)27-40 cm × (7-)12-15 cm, coriaceous.
  • Inflorescence pseudo-terminal, pyramidal, puberulous.
  • Flowers 5-merous, petals 4.5-6 mm long, reddish, without ridges on the inner surface, the base slightly adnate to the rather obscure, cylindrical and stipe-like disk, five stamens fertile but of different lengths, connate at base, staminodes 5, subulate.
  • Fruit a broadly ellipsoid drupe, up to 16 cm × 10 cm, dull and velvety brown when ripe.

M. decandra occurs scattered in lowland primary evergreen forest up to 350(-1450) m altitude, sometimes in freshwater swamp forest and secondary forest, flowering May-July, fruiting September-October. The heartwood is pale brown to reddish.

Selected sources

  • Bompard, J.M. & Kostermans, A.J.G.H., 1985. Wild Mangifera species in Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Mehra, K.L. & Sastrapradja, S. (Editors): Proceedings of the International Symposium on South East Asian Plant Genetic Resources, 20-24 August 1985, Jakarta. Lembaga Biologi Nasional LIPI, Bogor. pp. 172-174.
  • Mukherjee, S.K., 1985. Systematic and ecogeographic studies on crop genepools 1. Mangifera L. IBPGR, Rome. 86 pp.
  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. et al. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Series 1. Vol. 1, 4-10. Centre for Research and Development in Biology, Bogor, Indonesia, and Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.

162, 328, 673. timbers

Authors

  • P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen