Mangifera decandra (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Mangifera decandra Ding Hou

Protologue: Reinwardtia 8: 323, fig. 1 (1972).
Family: Anacardiaceae

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: bienjai, kemang badak (Sumatra), konyot, palong besi (Kalimantan)
  • Malaysia: beluno, binjay, binjai hutan, belunu hutan (Sabah), mawong (Sarawak).


Sumatra, Borneo (mainly in Sabah). Sometimes also cultivated.


The wood is reputed to be used. The fruit is edible but sour and fibrous.


  • A medium-sized, sometimes large tree up to 30(-50) m tall, with bole branchless for up to 20 m and up to 90(-110) cm in diameter, buttresses absent, bark surface initially smooth with longitudinal rows of lenticels, developing into narrow cracks and later regularly fissured, reddish-brown.
  • Leaves elliptical-oblong to obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, (17-)27-40 cm × (7-)12-15 cm, coriaceous.
  • Inflorescence pseudo-terminal, pyramidal, puberulous.
  • Flowers 5-merous, petals 4.5-6 mm long, reddish, without ridges on the inner surface, the base slightly adnate to the rather obscure, cylindrical and stipe-like disk, five stamens fertile but of different lengths, connate at base, staminodes 5, subulate.
  • Fruit a broadly ellipsoid drupe, up to 16 cm × 10 cm, dull and velvety brown when ripe.

M. decandra occurs scattered in lowland primary evergreen forest up to 350(-1450) m altitude, sometimes in freshwater swamp forest and secondary forest, flowering May-July, fruiting September-October. The heartwood is pale brown to reddish.

Selected sources

  • Bompard, J.M. & Kostermans, A.J.G.H., 1985. Wild Mangifera species in Kalimantan, Indonesia. In: Mehra, K.L. & Sastrapradja, S. (Editors): Proceedings of the International Symposium on South East Asian Plant Genetic Resources, 20-24 August 1985, Jakarta. Lembaga Biologi Nasional LIPI, Bogor. pp. 172-174.
  • Mukherjee, S.K., 1985. Systematic and ecogeographic studies on crop genepools 1. Mangifera L. IBPGR, Rome. 86 pp.
  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. et al. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Series 1. Vol. 1, 4-10. Centre for Research and Development in Biology, Bogor, Indonesia, and Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.

162, 328, 673. timbers


  • P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen