Hopea sulcata (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Hopea sulcata Sym.

Protologue: Gard. Bull. Str. Settl. 10: 358, pl. 20 (1939).

Vernacular names

  • Malaysia: merawan meranti, pengerawan bukit (Peninsular).


Peninsular Malaysia.


The timber is used as merawan.


  • A medium-sized tree of up to 30 m tall, bole straight, branchless for up to 15 m, with a diameter of up to 95 cm, at first with stilt roots, later on with small buttresses, bark surface fissured, dark brown or yellowish on top of the ridges, inner bark light brown tinged pink, sapwood pale yellow-ochre, exuding clear dammar; young parts silvery lepidote, domatia and petioles cream pubescent.
  • Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 4-10 cm × 1.7-4 cm, falcate, base cuneate, shortly decurrent, subequal, acumen slender, up to 2 cm long, venation dryobalanoid, midrib raised above, secondary veins about 10 pairs with many shorter unequal veins in between, arched, more or less distinctly elevated beneath.
  • Stamens 15, ovary ovoid, tapering into an equally long filiform style.
  • 2 longer fruit calyx lobes up to 5.5 cm × 1.2 cm, base broadly subauriculate, 3 shorter ones up to 20 mm × 7 mm, similarly subauriculate, completely enclosing the nut.

H. sulcata is locally abundant and gregarious on ridges, at 100-400 m altitude. The density of the wood is 530-850 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. See also the table on wood properties.

Selected sources

253, 258, 297, 324, 417, 677, 748.

Main genus page


  • K.M. Kochummen (selection of species),
  • F.T. Frietema (selection of species)