Hopea mengarawan (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Hopea mengarawan Miq.

Protologue: Fl. Ind. Bat., Suppl. 1 (Prodr. Fl. Sum.): 491, 192 (1861).

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: damar mata kucing (general), merawan benar (Sumatra, Kalimantan), chengal bulu (Sumatra), bangkirai telor (East Kalimantan)
  • Malaysia: merawan penak (Peninsular, Sarawak), merawan hitam, pengerawan penak (Peninsular).


Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Belitung, Bangka and Borneo.


H. mengarawan is an important source of merawan timber. It produces a dammar which is considered of good quality in Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. The bark is used for roofing traditional houses.


  • A medium-sized to large tree of up to 40(-60) m tall, bole branchless for up to 25 m, sometimes more, with a diameter of up to 90 cm and prominently buttressed, exuding a clear, yellow resin, bark surface fissured, chocolate coloured, inner bark pale yellow tinged pink, sapwood pale yellow, hard, heartwood brown, hard; twigs, petioles and leaves beneath caducous lepidote.
  • Leaves lanceolate, 6-12 cm × 2.5-5 cm, thick leathery, base cuneate, acumen slender, up to 1.5 cm long, venation dryobalanoid, midrib raised above, secondary veins about 15 pairs, slender but prominent beneath, with many short to subequal veins in between.
  • Stamens 15, in 3 unequal verticils, ovary ovoid, style about 2 times the length of ovary, villous in the basal third.
  • 2 longer fruit calyx lobes up to 7 cm × 1.2 cm, narrowly obtuse, 3 shorter ones up to 6 mm × 5 mm, ovate, acute, saccate.

H. mengarawan occurs locally, scattered or sometimes gregariously on low-lying, often swampy or periodically inundated land and also on low hills up to 500 m altitude. The density of the wood is 510-910 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. See also the table on wood properties.

Selected sources

31, 75, 102, 204, 253, 258, 305, 318, 324, 461, 514, 526, 560, 677, 748.

Main genus page


  • K.M. Kochummen (selection of species),
  • F.T. Frietema (selection of species)