FAO, product nomenclature

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Item Name Definition

800 Agave fibres nes Including inter alia: Haiti hemp (Agave foetida); henequen (A. fourcroydes); ixtle, tampico (A. lecheguilla); maguey (A. cantala); pita (A. americana); Salvador hemp (A. letonae). See 789. The leaves of some agave varieties are used for the production of alcoholic beverages, such as aquamiel, mezcal, pulque and tequila.

221 Almonds, with shell Prunus amygdalus; P. communis; Amygdalus communis. Produced mainly in Mediterranean countries, the United States and Asia.

711 Anise, badian, fennel, coriander Include: anise (Pimpinella anisum); badian or star anise (Illicium verum); caraway (Carum carvi); coriander (Coriandrum sativum); cumin (Cuminum cyminum); fennel (Foeniculum vulgare); juniper berries (Juniperus communis). Seeds and berries from the various plants listed. They are normally used as spices, but also have industrial (e.g. in distilleries) and medicinal applications.

515 Apples Malus pumila; M. sylvestris; M. communis; Pyrus malus.

526 Apricots Prunus armeniaca.

226 Areca nuts Areca, betel nut (Areca catechu). Produced mainly in the Far East. Areca nuts are used mainly as masticatory. These nuts contain alkaloids (arecoline and arecaidine).

366 Artichokes Cynara scolymus.

367 Asparagus Asparagus officinalis.

572 Avocados Persea americana.

203 Bambara beans Bambara groundnut, earth pea (Voandzeia subterranea). These beand are grown underground in a similar way to groundnuts.

486 Bananas Musa sapientum; M. cavendishii; M. nana. Bananas are normally eaten raw. Trade figures may include dried bananas. Data should be reported excluding the weight of the central stalk.

44 Barley Hordeum spp.: two-row barley (H. disticum) six-row barley (H. hexasticum) four-row barley (H. vulgare). Tolerates poorer soils and lower temperatures better than does wheat. Varieties include with husk and without (naked). Used as a livestock feed, for malt and for preparing foods. The roasted grains are a coffee substitute.

782 Bastfibres, other Including inter alia: China jute (Abutilon avicennae); Congo jute, malva, paka (Urena lobata; U. sinuata); Indian flax (Abroma augusta); kenaf, meshta (Hibiscus cannabinus); rosella hemp (H. sabdariffa); sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea). This definition covers all textile fibres extracted from the stems of dicotyledonous plants, o/t flax, ramie, true hemp and true jute. For trade coverage see 780.

176 Beans, dry Phaseolus spp.: kidney, haricot bean (Ph. vulgaris); lima, butter bean (Ph. lunatus); adzuki bean (Ph. angularis); mungo bean, golden, green gram (Ph. aureus); black gram, urd (Ph. mungo); scarlet runner bean (Ph. coccineus); rice bean (Ph. calcaratus); moth bean (Ph. aconitifolius); tepary bean (Ph. acutifolius). Only species of Phaseolus should be included, though several countries also include certain types of beans. Commonly classified as Vigna (angularis, mungo, radiata, aconitifolia). In the past, these species were also classified as Phaseolus.

414 Beans, green Phaseolus and Vigna spp.. For shelling.

558 Berries nes Including inter alia: blackberry (Morus nigra); loganberry; white, red mulberry (M. alba; M. rubra); myrtle berry (Myrtus communis) huckleberry, dangleberry (Gaylussacia spp.). Other berries not separately identified. In some countries, some or all of the berries listed previously are reported under this general category.

552 Blueberries European blueberry, wild bilberry, whortleberry (Vaccinium myrtillus); American blueberry (V. corymbosum). Trade data may include cranberries, myrtle berries and other fruits of the genus Vaccinium.

216 Brazil nuts, with shell Brazil, Para or cream nut (Bertholletia excelsa).

181 Broad beans, horse beans, dry Vicia faba: horse-bean (var. equina); broad bean (var. major); field bean (var. minor).

89 Buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum (Polygonaceae). A minor cereal cultivated primarily in northern regions. Buckwheat is considered a cereal, although it does not belong to the gramineous family.

358 Cabbages and other brassicas Chinese, mustard cabbage, pak-choi (Brassica chinensis); white, red, savoy cabbage, Brussels sprouts, collards, kale and kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea all var. except botrytis).

101 Canary seed Phalaris canariensis. Minor cereal normally used as bird feed.

461 Carobs Ceratonia siliqua Carob-tree, locust bean. Includes also seeds. Mainly used as an animal feed and for industrial purposes. Rich in pectin.

426 Carrots and turnips Daucus carota. Trade data may include turnips (Brassica rapa var. rapifera).

217 Cashew nuts, with shell Anacardium occidentale. Produced mainly in East Africa, India and Brazil.

591 Cashewapple Anacardium occidentale. The thickened, fleshy stem below the cashew nut. When soft it is used for jam.

125 Cassava Manioc, mandioca, yuca (Manihot esculenta, syn. M. utilissima); yuca dulce (M. palmata, syn. M. dulcis). A semi-permanent crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Sometimes bitter and sweet cassavas are referred to as separate species, the former being M. esculenta and the latter M. palmata, but this is incorrect since the toxicity varies according to location. Cassava is the staple food in many tropical countries. It is not traded internationally in its fresh state because tubers deteriorate very rapidly.

378 Cassava leaves Manihot esculenta; M. utilissima. Young cassava leaves are eaten in some areas of Africa as a vegetable.

265 Castor oil seed Ricinus communis. Valued mainly for their oil, which is used in pharmaceutical products. Ground seedcakes are used as fertilizers (castor oil pomace).

393 Cauliflowers and broccoli Brassica oleracea var. botrytis, subvariety cauliflora and cymosa. Includes headed broccoli.

108 Cereals, nes Including inter alia: canagua or coaihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule); quihuicha or Inca wheat (Amaranthus caudatus); adlay or Job's tears (Coix lacryma-jobi); wild rice (Zizania aquatica). Other cereal crops that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report cereals under this commodity heading that are classified individually by FAO.

531 Cherries Mazzard, sweet cherry (Prunus avium; Cerasus avium); hard-fleshed cherry (var. duracina); heart cherry (var. juliana).

530 Cherries, sour Prunus cerasus; Cerasus acida.

220 Chestnut Castanea spp.: C. vesca; C. vulgaris; C. sativa. Produced mainly in Europe and Asia.

191 Chick peas Chickpea, Bengal gram, garbanzos (Cicer arietinum).

459 Chicory roots Horium intybus; C. sativum. Unroasted chicory roots.

689 Chillies and peppers, dry Red and cayenne pepper, paprika, chillies (Capsicum frutescens; C. annuum); allspice, Jamaica pepper (Pimenta officinalis). Uncrushed or unground fresh pimentos are considered to be vegetables.

401 Chillies and peppers, green Capsicum annuum; C. fructescens; Pimenta officinalis. Production data exclude crops cultivated explicitly as spices. In contrast, trade data include these crops, provided they are fresh, uncrushed and unground.

693 Cinnamon (canella) Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum); Chinese, common cinnamon, cassia (C. cassia). The inner bark of young branches of certain trees of the Laurus family. Includes cinnamon- tree flowers, cinnamon fruit and cinnamon waste (chips), whether whole, crushed or ground.

698 Cloves Eugenia caryophyllata; Caryophyllus aromaticus. The whole fruit of the clove tree, including the flowers picked before maturity and dried in the sun, and the stems of the clove flowers.

661 Cocoa, beans Theobroma cacao. The seeds contained in the fruit of the cacao- tree, including whole or broken, raw or roasted.

249 Coconuts Cocos nucifera Husked coconut. In shell, covered by the endocarp, while exocarp (the smooth outer skin) and mesocarp (the fibrous covering) are removed. Immature nuts contain a milky juice that is consumed as a refreshing drink. Mature nuts are consumed as such, or processed for copra or desiccated coconut. The flesh, from which copra/oil is extracted, constitutes 40-70% of the weight of the husked coconut. The oil content is about 36% of the flesh.

656 Coffee, green Coffea spp. (arabica, robusta, liberica). Raw coffee in all forms.

813 Coir Cocos nucifera. Coir fibre is obtained from the fibrous covering of the mesocarp. For trade coverage see 789.

767 Cotton lint Gossypium spp. Fibres from ginning seed cotton that have not been carded or combed. Trade data also include fibres that have been cleaned, bleached, dyed or rendered absorbent.

329 Cottonseed Used for extracting oil.

195 Cow peas, dry Cowpea, blackeye pea/bean (Vigna sinensis; Dolichos sinensis).

554 Cranberries American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon); European cranberry (V. oxycoccus). Trade data may include blueberries, myrtle berries and other fruits of the genus Vaccinium.

397 Cucumbers and gherkins Cucumis sativus.

550 Currants Black (Ribes nigrum); red and white (R. rubrum). Trade data may sometimes include gooseberries.

577 Dates Phoenix dactylifera. Includes fresh and dried fruit.

399 Eggplants (aubergines) Solanum melongena. Also called aubergines.

821 Fibre crops nes Including inter alia: alfa, esparto (Lygeum spartum; Stipa tenacissima); bowstring hemp (Sansevieria spp.); caroa (Neoglaziovia variegata); fuque fibre (Furcraea macrophylla); Mauritius hemp (F. gigantea); New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax); palma ixtle (Samuela carnerosana). Other fibres that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report vegetable fibres under this commodity heading that are classified individually by FAO. The fibre is obtained from the leaves, stalks or fruit of the plant. In instances where the fibrous part is normally used for other purposes, data cover only those fibres intended for spinning. For trade coverage see 789.

569 Figs Ficus carica.

773 Flax fibre and tow Broken, scutched, hackled etc. but not spun. Traditionally, FAO has used this commodity to identify production in its raw state; in reality, the primary agricultural product is the commodity 771, which can either be used for the production of fibre or for other purposes.

94 Fonio Digitaria spp.: fonio or findi (D. exilis); black fonio or hungry rice (D. iburua). A minor cereal of importance only in West Africa where it is eaten in place of rice during famines. The seeds are cooked by steaming the whole grain.

512 Fruit, citrus nes Including inter alia: bergamot (Citrus bergamia); citron (C. medica var. cedrata); chinotto (C. myrtifolia); kumquat (Fortunella japonica). Some minor varieties of citrus are used primarily in the preparation of perfumes and soft drinks.

619 Fruit, fresh nes Including inter alia: azarole (Crataegus azarolus); babaco (Carica pentagona); elderberry (Sambucus nigra); jujube (Zizyphus jujuba); litchi (nephelium litchi); loquat (Eriobotrya japonica); medlar (Mespilus germanica); pawpaw (Asimina triloba); pomegranate (Punica granatum); prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica); rose hips (Rosa spp.); rowanberry (Sorbus aucuparia); service-apple (Sorbus domestica); tamarind (Tamarindus indica); tree-strawberry (Arbutus unedo). Other fresh fruit that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report fresh fruit under this heading that are classified separately by FAO.

542 Fruit, pome nes Other pome fruit not separately identified. In some countries apples, pears and quinces are reported under this general category.

541 Fruit, stone nes Other stone fruit not separately identified. In some countries, apricots, cherries, peaches, nectarines and plums are reported under this general category.

603 Fruit, tropical fresh nes Including inter alia: breadfruit (Artocarpus incisa); carambola (Averrhoa carambola); cherimoya, custard apple (Annona spp.); durian (Durio zibethinus); feijoa (Feijoa sellowiana); guava (Psidium guajava); hog plum, mombin (Spondias spp.); jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia); longan (nephelium longan); mammee (Mammea americana); mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana); naranjillo (Solanum quitoense); passion fruit (Passiflora edulis); rambutan (nephelium lappaceum); sapote, mamey colorado (Calocarpum mammosum); sapodilla (Achras sapota); star apple, cainito (Chrysophyllum spp.). Other tropical fresh fruit that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. In some countries mangoes, avocados, pineapples, dates and papayas are reported under this general category.

406 Garlic Allium sativum.

720 Ginger Zingiber officinale. Rhizome of a perennial herb. It also is used for making beverages. Includes fresh, provisionally preserved or dried, whereas ginger preserved in sugar or syrup is excluded.

549 Gooseberries Ribes grossularia. Trade data may sometimes include black, white or red currants.

103 Grain, mixed A mixture of cereal species that are sown and harvested together. The mixture wheat/rye is known as meslin, but in trade is usually classified with wheat.

507 Grapefruit (inc. pomelos) Citrus maxima; C. grandis; C. paradisi.

560 Grapes Vitis vinifera. Includes both table and wine grapes.

242 Groundnuts, with shell Arachis hypogaea. For trade data, groundnuts in shell are converted at 70% and reported on a shelled basis.

839 Gums, natural Including inter alia: balata (Manilkara bidentata); ceara (Manihot glaziovii); chicle gum (Achras zapota); guayule (Parthenium argentatum); gutta-percha (Palachium gutta); jelutong (Dieva costulana). Extracted from the latex of trees of various species. Although similar to rubber in many ways, natural gums are usually less elastic.

225 Hazelnuts, with shell Corylus avellana. Produced mainly in Mediterranean countries and the United States.

777 Hemp tow waste Cannabis sativa. This plant is cultivated for seed as well as for fibre. The fibre is obtained from the stem of the plant. Trade data include raw, retted, scutched, combed fibre, tow and waste.

336 Hempseed Cannabis sativa. An annual herbaceous that is cultivated for its fibre as well as its oil. In major producing countries oil is extracted from the seeds.

677 Hops Humulus lupulus. Hop cones, fresh or dried, whether or not ground, powdered or in the form of pellets. Includes lupuline, a yellow resinous powder that covers the hop cones. Mainly used in the brewing industry to give flavour to beer.

277 Jojoba seed Simmondsia californica (syn. S. chinensis). From the shrub or small tree of the Buxaceae family.

780 Jute White jute (Corchorus capsularis); red jute, tossa (C. olitorius). Trade data cover raw or processed jute (but not spun), tow and waste, yarn waste and garnetted stock and may include jute-like fibres.

778 Kapok fibre Ceiba pentandra. This plant is cultivated for seed as well as for fibre. Trade data cover only fibres that have been crushed, carded or combed for spinning.

310 Kapok fruit Ceiba pentandra, Bombacaceae. The fruit of kapok contains fibre and seeds, which FAO treats as primary crops.

311 Kapokseed in shell The soft shell is approximately 40-50% of the total weight of the nut.

263 Karite nuts (sheanuts) Butyrospermum parkii. Production data refer only to the nut contained in the fruit although the pulp around the nut is also edible.

592 Kiwi fruit Actinidia chinensis.

224 Kola nuts Kola, cola, Sudan cola nut (Cola nitida; C. vera; C. acuminata). Produced mainly in Africa. Kola nuts, containing 2.4 to 2.6% caffeine, are commonly chewed by the local population. Much used in Europe and America in the production of beverages.

407 Leeks, other alliaceous vegetables Leeks (Allium porrum); chives (A. schoenoprasum); other alliac. (Allium varieties except those of 402, 403 and 406).

497 Lemons and limes Lemon (Citrus limon); sour lime (C. aurantifolia); sweet lime (C. limetta).

201 Lentils Lens esculenta; Ervum lens.

372 Lettuce and chicory Lactuca sativa; witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum); endive (C. endivia var. crispa); escarole chicory (C. endivia var. latifolia).

333 Linseed Linum usitatissimum Flaxseed. An annual herbaceous that is cultivated for its fibre as well as its oil.

210 Lupins Lupinus spp.. Used primarily for feed, though in some parts of Africa and in Latin America some varieties are cultivated for human food.

56 Maize Zea mays Corn, Indian corn, mealies. A grain with a high germ content. At the national level, hybrid and ordinary maize should be reported separately owing to widely different yields and uses. Used largely for animal feed and commercial starch production.

446 Maize, green Zea mays, particularly var. saccharata. Maize harvested green for food. Saccharata variety is commonly known as sweet corn.

571 Mangoes, mangosteens, guavas Mangifera indica. Trade figures may include dried mangoes, guavas and mangosteens, including both fresh and dried.

809 Manila fibre (abaca) Musa textilis. The fibre is obtained from stalks of certain banana trees. For trade coverage see 789. 671 Maté Ilex paraguayensis. The dried leaves of certain shrubs of the holly family which grow in South America. Prepared in a way similar to tea.

568 Melons, other (inc.cantaloupes) Cucumis melo;.

299 Melonseed Cucumis melo. Includes seeds of other Cucurbitaceae.

79 Millet Including inter alia: barnyard or Japanese millet (Echinocloa frumentacea); ragi, finger or African millet (Eleusine coracana); teff (Eragrostis abyssinica); common, golden or proso millet (Panicum miliaceum); koda or ditch millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum); pearl or cattail millet (Pennisetum glaucum); foxtail millet (Setaria italica). Small-grained cereals that include a large number of different botanical species. Originated by the domestication of wild African grasses in the Nile valley and the Sahel zone, millets were subsequently taken to China and India. These cereals tolerate arid conditions and possess a small, highly nutritious grain that stores well. Used locally, both as a food and as a livestock feed. In all areas where they are cultivated, millets are used in traditional beer brewing. Also used as a feed for birds.

449 Mushrooms and truffles Including inter alia: Boletus edulis; Agaricus campestris; Morchella spp. and Tuber magnatum. Cultivated or spontaneous. Includes truffles.

292 Mustard seed White mustard (Brassica alba; B. hirta; Sinapis alba); black mustard (Brassica nigra; Sinapis nigra). In addition to the oil extracted from them, white mustard seeds, may be processed into flour for food use. Black mustard seeds also yield oil and are processed into flour that is used mainly in pharmaceutical products.

702 Nutmeg, mace and cardamoms Nutmeg, mace (Myristica fragrans); cluster cardamon (Elettaria cardamomum); other cardamons (Aframomum angustifolium; A. hambury; Amomun aromaticum; A. cardamomum); Malaguetta pepper, grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta). Nutmeg is the inner brown kernel of the fruit of the nutmeg tree. Mace is the net-like membrane between the outer shell and the kernel. Cardamon seeds are enclosed in the capsule produced by perennial herbs of the Zingiberaceae family.

234 Nuts, nes Including inter alia: pecan nut (Carya illinoensis); butter or swarri nut (Caryocar nuciferum); pili nut, Java almond, Chinese olives (Canarium spp.); paradise or sapucaia nut (Lecythis zabucajo); Queensland, macadamia nut (Macadamia ternifolia); pignolia nut (Pinus pinea). Other nuts that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report nuts under this heading that are classified individually by FAO.

75 Oats Avena spp., mainly Avena sativa. A plant with open, spreading panicle-bearing large spikelets. Used primarily in breakfast foods. Makes excellent fodder for horses.

257 Oil, palm Obtained from the mesocarp of the fruit of the oil palm by pressure, and also by solvent from the residues of the pressure extraction.

254 Oil, palm fruit Elaeis guineensis. The oil palm produces bunches containing a large number of fruits with the fleshy mesocarp enclosing a kernel that is covered by a very hard shell. FAO considers palm oil (coming from the pulp) and palm kernels to be primary products. The oil extraction rate from a bunch varies from 17 to 27% for palm oil, and from 4 to 10% for palm kernels.

339 Oilseeds nes Includes inter alia: beech nut (Fagus sylvatica);(Aleurites moluccana);(Carapa guineensis);(Croton tiglium);(Bassia latifolia);(Guizotia abyssinica);(Licania rigida);(Perilla frutescens);(Jatropha curcas);(Shorea robusta);(Pongamia glabra);(Astrocaryum spp.). Other oilseeds, oleaginous fruits and nuts that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report commodities under this heading that are classified individually by FAO. Also included under this code are tea seeds, grape pips and tomato seeds from which oil is extracted.

430 Okra Abelmoschus esculentus; Hibiscus esculentus. Also called gombo.

260 Olives Olea europaea. Includes table olives and olives for oil.

403 Onions, dry Allium cepa. Includes onions at a mature stage, but not dehydrated onions.

402 Onions, shallots, green Shallots (Allium ascalonicum); onions (A. cepa); welsh onions (A. fistulosum). Young onions pulled before the bulb has enlarged; used especially in salads. Includes onion sets.

490 Oranges Common, sweet orange (Citrus sinensis); bitter orange (C. aurantium). Bitter oranges are used primarily in the preparation of marmalade.

256 Palm kernels Seeds of the oil palm. Babassu kernels (Orbignya speciosa) are often reported as palm kernels.

600 Papayas Carica papaya.

534 Peaches and nectarines Prunus persica; Amygdalus persica; Persica laevis.

521 Pears Pyrus communis.

187 Peas, dry Garden pea (Pisum sativum); field pea (P. arvense).

417 Peas, green Pisum sativum. Mostly for shelling, but including edible- podded peas or sugar peas.

687 Pepper (piper spp.) Black, white pepper (Piper nigrum); long pepper (P. longum). Perennial climbing vines. Includes whole, crushed or ground berries. Black pepper is produced from partially ripe berries, while white pepper is from fully ripe berries which have had the outer hull removed.

748 Peppermint Mentha spp.: M. piperita. Leaves and flowers are used in the perfumery, food and other industries.

587 Persimmons Diospyros kaki: D. virginiana.

197 Pigeon peas Pigeon pea, cajan pea, Congo bean (Cajanus cajan).

574 Pineapples Ananas comosus; A. sativ. Trade figures may include dried pineapples.

223 Pistachios Pistacia vera. Produced mainly in the Near East and the United States.

489 Plantains Musa paradisiaca. Generally known as a cooking banana. Data should be reported excluding the weight of the central stalk

536 Plums and sloes Greengage, mirabelle, damson (Prunus domestica); sloe (P. spinosa). 68 Popcorn Zea mays var. everta. A variety of maize that is eaten after the kernels have been heated and have "popped".

296 Poppy seed Papaver somniferum. The source of opium, poppy seeds are also used in baking and confectionery.

116 Potatoes Solanum tuberosum Irish potato. A seasonal crop grown in temperate zones all over the world, but primarily in the northern hemisphere.

211 Pulses, nes Including inter alia: lablab or hyacinth bean (Dolichos spp.); jack or sword bean (Canavalia spp.); winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus); guar bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba); velvet bean (Stizolobium spp.); yam bean (Pachyrrhizus erosus);. Vigna spp. other than those included in 176 and 195 Other pulses that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report pulses under this heading that are classified individually by FAO.

394 Pumpkins, squash and gourds Cucurbita spp. Includes marrows.

754 Pyrethrum, dried Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. Includes leaves, stems and flowers. For insecticides, fungicides and similar products.

523 Quinces Cydonia oblonga; C. vulgaris; C. japonica.

92 Quinoa Chenopodium quinoa (Chenopodiaceae). A minor cereal, which tolerates high altitudes, quinoa is cultivated primarily in andean countries. Used for food and to make chicha, a fermented beverage.

788 Ramie China grass, white ramie (Boehmeria nivea); rhea, green ramie (B. tenacissima). Ramie fibre is obtained from the bast of the plant. For trade coverage see 780

270 Rapeseed Brassica napus var. oleifera. Valued mainly for its oil. Older varieties are rich in Erucic acid, which is considered unhealthy.

547 Raspberries Ubus idaeus. Trade data may include blackberries, mulberries and loganberries (a cross between the raspberry and blackberry).

27 Rice, paddy Oryza spp., mainly oryza sativa. Rice grain after threshing and winnowing. Also known as rice in the husk and rough rice. Used mainly for human food.

149 Roots and tubers, nes Including inter alia: arracacha (Arracacoa xanthorrhiza); arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea); chufa (Cyperus esculentus); sago palm (Metroxylon spp.); oca and ullucu (Oxalis tuberosa and Ullucus tuberosus); yam bean, jicama (Pachyrxhizus erosus, P. angulatus); mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum); Jerusalem artichoke, topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus). Other tubers, roots or rhizomes, fresh, that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report roots and tubers under this commodity heading that are classified individually by FAO.

836 Rubber, natural Hevea brasiliensis Latex. The liquid secreted by the rubber tree. Includes stabilized or concentrated latex and prevulcanized rubber latex. In trade figures, liquid weight is converted to dry weight at 60%.

71 Rye Secale cereale. A grain that is tolerant of poor soils, high latitudes and altitudes. Mainly used in making bread, whisky and beer. When fed to livestock, it is generally mixed with other grains.

280 Safflower seed Carthamus tinctorius. Valued mainly for its oil. Minor uses include as a human food and as poultry feed.

328 Seed cotton Gossypium spp.: Unginned cotton. Grown for both seed and for fibre. FAO considers cottonseed, cotton lint and linters to be primary products. Lint content ranges from 30 to 40%, seed 55 to 65%, and linters 2 to 5% though they are not always separated.

289 Sesame seed Sesamum indicum. Valued for its oil, but also as a food, either raw or roasted, as well as in bakery products and other food preparations.

789 Sisal Agave sisalana. Sisal fibre is obtained from the leaves of the plant. It also is used as an ornamental plant. Trade data cover fibres that are raw, prepared for spinning, and tow and waste, including yarn waste and garnetted stock.

83 Sorghum Sorghum spp.: guinea corn (S. guineense); common, milo, feterita, kaffir corn (S. vulgare); durra, jowar, kaoliang (S. dura). A cereal that has both food and feed uses. Sorghum is a major food grain in most of Africa, where it is also used in traditional beer brewing. It is desirable to report hybrid and other varieties separately.

236 Soybeans Glycine soja. The most important oil crop. Also widely consumed as a bean and in the form of various derived products because of its high protein content, e.g. soya milk, meat, etc.

723 Spices, nes Including inter alia: bay leaves (Laurus nobilis); dill seed (Anethum graveolens); fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum); saffron (Crocus sativus); thyme (Thymus vulgaris); turmeric (Curcuma longa). Other spices that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report spices under this heading that are classified individually by FAO. This heading also includes curry powder and other mixtures of different spices.

373 Spinach Spinacia oleracea. Trade figures may include New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia espansa) and orache (garden) spinach (Atriplex hortensis).

544 Strawberries Fragaria spp..

423 String beans Phaseolus vulgaris; Vigna spp. Not for shelling

157 Sugar beet Beta vulgaris var. altissima. In some producing countries, marginal quantities are consumed, either directly as food or in the preparation of jams.

156 Sugar cane Saccharum officinarum. In some producing countries, marginal quantities of sugar cane are consumed, either directly as food or in the form of juice.

161 Sugar crops, nes Including inter alia: sugar maple (Acer saccharum); sweet sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum); sugar palm (Arenga saccharifera). Includes minor sugar crops of local importance. In the case of saps, production is to be expressed in liquid equivalent.

267 Sunflower seed Helianthus annuus. Valued mainly for its oil. Minor uses include as a human food and as feed for birds.

122 Sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas. A seasonal crop grown in tropical and subtropical regions. Used mainly for human food. Trade data cover fresh and dried tubers, whether or not sliced or in the form or pellets.

305 Tallowtree seed Borneo tallow tree (Shorea aptera; S. stenocarpa); Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum; Stillingia sebifera). Grown wild and cultivated. FAO considers vegetable tallow and stillingia oil to be primary products (see below).

495 Tangerines, mandarins, clementines, satsumas Mandarin, tangerine (Citrus reticulata); clementine, satsuma (C. unshiu).

136 Taro (cocoyam) Dasheen, eddoe, taro, old cocoyam(Colocasia esculenta). Aroids cultivated for their edible starchy corms or underground stems. Taro is grown throughout the tropics for food. Trade data cover both fresh and dried taro.

667 Tea Camellia sinensis; Thea sinensis; Thea assaamica. Includes green tea (unfermented), black tea (fermented), and partially fermented tea. Excludes green tea eaten as a vegetable.

826 Tobacco, unmanufactured Nicotiana tabacum. Unmanufactured dry tobacco, including refuse that is not stemmed or stripped, or is partly or wholly stemmed or stripped.

388 Tomatoes Lycopersicon esculentum.

97 Triticale A minor cereal that is a cross between wheat and rye, combining the quality and yield of wheat with the hardiness of rye.

275 Tung nuts Aleurites cordata; A. fordii. Valued mainly for their oil.

692 Vanilla Vanilla planifolia; V. pompona. The fruit (or bean) of a climbing plant of the orchid family. Includes whole, crushed or ground.

463 Vegetables, fresh nes Including inter alia: bamboo shoots (Bambusa spp.); beets, chards (Beta vulgaris); capers (Capparis spinosa); cardoons (Cynara cardunculus); celery (Apium graveolens); chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium); cress (Lepidium sativum); fennel (Foeniculum vulgare); horseradish (Cochlearia armoracia); marjoram, sweet (Majorana hortensis); oyster plant (Tragopogon porrifolius); parsley (Petroselinum crispum); parsnips (Pastinaca sativa); radish (Raphanus sativus); rhubarb (Rheum spp.); rutabagas, swedes (Brassica napus); savory (Satureja hortensis); scorzonera (Scorzonera hispanica); sorrel (Rumex acetosa); soybean sprouts tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus); watercress (Nasturtium officinale). Other vegetables that are not identified separately because of their minor relevance at the international level. Because of their limited local importance, some countries report vegetables under this heading that are classified individually by FAO.

420 Vegetables, leguminous nes Vicia faba. For shelling.

205 Vetches Spring/common vetch (Vicia sativa). Used mainly for animal feed.

222 Walnuts, with shell Jugland spp.: J. regia. Produced in temperate zones of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in the United States.

567 Watermelons Citrullus vulgaris.

15 Wheat Triticum spp.: common (T. aestivum) durum (T. durum) spelt (T. spelta). Common and durum wheat are the main types. Among common wheat, the main varieties are spring and winter, hard and soft, and red and white. At the national level, different varieties should be reported separately, reflecting their different uses. Used mainly for human food.

137 Yams Dioscorea spp.. The principal edible yams are widely grown throughout the tropics. A starchy staple foodstuff, normally eaten as a vegetable, boiled, baked or fried. In West Africa they are consumed mainly as "fufu", a stiff glutinous dough. Trade data cover both fresh and dried yams.

135 Yautia (cocoyam) Xanthosoma spp.; malanga, new cocoyam, ocumo, tannia (X. sagittifolium). Several plants are included in this group, some with edible tubers and others with edible stems (also called aroids). Yautia is grown mainly in the Caribbean and is used for food. Trade data cover both fresh and dried yautia.