Cudrania-Cymopterus (Sturtevant, 1919)

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Cucurbita
Sturtevant, Notes on edible plants, 1919
Cudrania-Cymopterus (Sturtevant, 1919)
Cynara


Cudrania javanensis Tree.

Urticaceae.

Tropical Asia, Africa and Australia. The fruit is a compound, irregularly-shaped berry as large as a small custard apple, formed of the enlarged fleshy perianths and receptacle, each perianth enclosing a one-seeded nut. The fruit is edible and of a pleasant taste.

Cuminum cyminum Linn.

Umbelliferae. CUMIN.

Mediterranean region. This is a small, annual plant indigenous to the upper regions of the Nile but was carried at an early period by cultivation to Arabia, India and China, as well as to the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. It is referred to by the prophet Isaiah and is mentioned in Matthew. Pliny calls it the best appetizer of all the condiments and says the Ethiopian and the African are of superior quality but that some prefer the Egyptian. During the Middle Ages, cumin was one of the species in most common use and is mentioned in Normandy in 716, in England between 1264 and 1400 and is enumerated in 1419 among the merchandise taxed in the city of London. It is mentioned in many of the herbals of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and is recorded as under cultivation in England in 1594. In India, the seeds form an ingredient of curry powders and pickles 8 and in France find use in cookery. In Holland, cheeses are sometimes flavored with cumin. The seed is occasionally advertised in American seed catalogs but is probably very rarely grown.

Cupania americana Linn.

Sapindaceae.

Mexico. The sweet, chestnut-like seeds are used in the West Indies as a food." The seeds have the flavor of chestnut or sweet acoms and are used on the banks of the Orinoco to make a fermented liquor.

Curculigo orchioides Gaertn.

Amaryllideae.

Tropical Asia. In the Mariana Islands, the roots are eaten.

Curcuma amada Roxb.

Scitamineae. AMADA. GINGER. MANGO.

East Indies. The fresh root possesses the smell of a green mango and is used in India as a vegetable and condiment.

Curcuma angustifolia Roxb.

ARROWROOT.

Himalayan region. The root had long been an article of food amongst the natives of India before it was particularly noticed by Europeans. It furnishes an arrowroot of a yellow tinge which does not thicken in boiling water. This East Indian arrowroot is exported from Travancore. It forms a good substitute for the West Indian arrowroot and is sold in the bazaars.

Curcuma leucorhiza Roxb.

East Indies. The tubers yield a starch which forms an excellent arrowroot that is sold in the bazaars.

Curcuma longa Linn.

TURMERIC.

Tropical Asia. This plant is extensively cultivated in India for its tubers which are an essential ingredient of native curry powders, according to Dutt. The substance called turmeric is made from the old tubers of this and perhaps other species. The young, colorless tubers furnish a sort of arrowroot.

Curcuma rubescens Roxb.

East Indies. This plant furnishes an excellent arrowroot from its tubers, which is eaten by the natives and sold in the bazaars.

Curcuma zedoaria Rose.

ZEDOARY.

Himalayas. This plant yields a product used as turmeric.

Cyamopsis psoraloides DC.

Leguminosae.

East Indies. This species is cultivated about Bombay for the sake of the pods which are eaten like French beans, and is grown also by the natives of Burma who esteem it a good vegetable. Wight "says" the young beans are with reason much prized by the natives as a culinary pulse and merit more attention from Europeans, as they are a pleasant and delicate vegetable."

Cyanella capensis Linn.

Haemodoraceae.

South Africa. A kind of onion is obtained from this plant and roasted for the table by the farmers of Kaffraria.

Cyathea dealbata Swartz.

Cyatheaceae. SILVERY TREE-FERN.

The pith of this tree-fern is said to be eaten in New Zealand.

Cyathea medullaris Swartz.

BLACK-STEMMED TREE-FERN.

The pith of this plant, a coarse sago, is eaten in times of scarcity in New Zealand. In the Voyage of the Novara it is said that the whole stalk, often 20 feet high, is edible and is sufficient to maintain a considerable number of persons. The pith, when cooked and dried in the sun, is an excellent substitute for sago. It is also to be found in Queensland and the Pacific isles.

Cycas circinalis Linn.

Cycadaceae. SAGO PALM.

Tropical eastern Asia and the Malayan Archipelago. Captain Cook speaks of the inhabitants of Prince Island eating the nuts, which poisoned his hogs and made some of the crew sick. He adds, however, that they are sliced and dried and after steeping in fresh water for three minutes and dried a second time they are eaten in times of scarcity as a food, mixed with rice. In Malabar, Drury says a kind of sago prepared from the nuts is much used by the poorer classes. Pickering says on the Comoro Islands it is a common esculent; Blanco says on the Philippines its fruit is sometimes eaten; Rumphius says it is eaten on the Moluccas; J. Smith 5 says a kind of sago is obtained from the stem.

Cycas revoluta Thunb.

Subtropical Japan. Thunberg says a small morsel of the pith of the stem is sufficient to sustain life a long time and on that account the plant is jealously preserved for the use of the Japanese army. The drupes are also eaten. J. Smith says it occurs also in China and New Guinea.

Cyclopia genistoides Vent.

Leguminosae. BUSH TEA.

South Africa. An infusion of its leaves is used as a tea.

Cyclopia subternata Vog.

South Africa. This is also a tea substitute, according to Church.

Cymbidium canaliculatum R. Br.

Orchideae.

Australia. The tubers of this plant are used by the blacks of Wide Bay.

Cymopterus fendleri A. Gray.

Umbelliferae.

Texas and New Mexico. This plant emits, when in decoction, a peculiarly strong and pleasant odor. It is sometimes used as a stuffing for mutton.

Cymopterus glomeratus DC.

Western states of North America. The root is edible.

Cymopterus montanus Torr. & Gray.

GAMOTE.

Western North America. This plant is called by the Mexicans gamote or camote. The root is spindle-shaped, parsnip-like but much softer, sweeter and more tender than the parsnip. This root is collected largely by the Mexicans and also by the Ute and Piute Indians.