Cucurbita moschata (PROTA)

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Plant Resources of Tropical Africa
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List of species


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distribution in Africa (planted)
1, stem fragment with female flower; 2, male flower in longitudinal section; 3, fruit (‘Butternut’); 4, young fruit. Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman
young fruit
fruiting plant habit and opened fruit
fruits on the market
flowering and fruiting plant
flowering plant for seed production in Cameroon

Cucurbita moschata Duchesne


Protologue: Essai Hist. Nat. Courges: 7, 15–16 (1786).
Family: Cucurbitaceae
Chromosome number: 2n = 40

Synonyms

  • Cucurbita pepo L. var. moschata Lam. (1786).

Vernacular names

  • Musk pumpkin, pumpkin, musky gourd, winter squash (En).
  • Courge musquée, giraumon (Fr).
  • Abóbora moscata, abóbora almiscarada (Po).
  • Mboga (Sw).

Origin and geographic distribution

The genus Cucurbita originates from Central and South America. The wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but recent investigations of the phylogenetic relationships among wild and domesticated Cucurbita taxa, mainly based on DNA data, suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Archaeological evidence for the association of cultivated Cucurbita with man dates back to 5000 years BC. After the discovery of the new world, the cultivated cucurbits were introduced into the old world. Since the 17th century they have spread all over the tropics and subtropics. Cucurbita moschata is the most heat tolerant Cucurbita species and the most common in tropical Africa. It is most probably cultivated in all countries of tropical Africa, but it is more important in southern Africa than in East and West Africa.

Uses

Musk pumpkin is a multipurpose fruit and leaf vegetable, but the flowers are consumed too. The most common product, popular in most African countries, is the cooked mature fruit. The fruit is also popular for making pumpkin pie and in South-East Asia it is made into sweets and desserts, e.g. steamed fruit flesh with grated coconut and sugar, and into crisps made by frying steamed fruit flesh mixed with cassava flour. In Zambia the ripe fruit flesh is dried for longer preservation.

Especially in southern Africa the leaves play an important role as a leading leaf vegetable during the rainy season. Pumpkin leaves are prepared by first removing the main veins and tendrils, after which they are cut into narrow slices and cooked. Other ingredients, like peanut butter, cooking oil, onions, tomato and spices, are added. In Zambia, 40% of the households use pumpkin leaves as relish daily during the rainy season. In Mashonaland-West and other parts of Zimbabwe pumpkin leaves are the most popular leaf vegetable.

In Cameroon and other parts of Central and West Africa Cucurbita moschata is principally grown for the ripe seeds. These are first roasted, the shells removed, and squashed into a paste and consumed with the main dish. Roasted seeds with or without shells are also salted and eaten as a snack. The potential of the seeds as a source of vegetable fat has not been fully exploited. The seed oil is edible and used as fuel.

Cucurbita moschata has several medicinal applications in Thailand and China. Crushed fresh seeds are used as an anthelmintic, and are also applied to skin infections and inflammations.

Production and international trade

In FAO statistics, world production of pumpkin and squash (all Cucurbita species taken together) in 2000 is indicated as 16.0 million t from 1.3 million ha; African production is estimated at 1.8 million t from 140,000 ha, corresponding with an average yield of 12.8 t/ha. These data are very incomplete, reflecting the production from only 16 African countries, of which 9 in tropical Africa. No detailed information per species or country is available. International trade of pumpkin leaves, fruits and seed is very minor or nonexistent, but at national level the leaves and fruits and often the seeds are important products on the local markets.

Properties

The composition of pumpkin fruits per 100 g edible portion (67% of purchased, flesh only, seeds removed, peeled thickly) is as follows: water 95.0 g, energy 35 kJ (13 kcal), protein 0.7 g, fat 0.2 g, carbohydrate 2.2 g, fibre 1.0 g, Ca 29 mg, P 19 mg, Fe 0.4 mg, β-carotene 450 μg, thiamin 0.16 mg, riboflavin trace, niacin 0.1 mg, folate 10 μg, ascorbic acid 14 mg (Holland, B., Unwin, I.D. & Buss, D.H., 1991).

The composition of pumpkin leaves per 100 g is: water 89.2 g, energy 113 kJ (27 kcal), protein 4.0 g, fat 0.2 g, carbohydrate 4.4 g, fibre 2.4 g, Ca 477 mg, P 136 mg, Fe 0.8 mg, β-carotene 3600 μg, thiamin 0.06 mg, riboflavin 0.32 mg, ascorbic acid 80 mg.

The composition of pumpkin seeds (without shell) per 100 g is: water 5.5 g, energy 2331 kJ (555 kcal), protein 23.4 g, fat 46.2 g, carbohydrate 21.5 g, fibre 2.2 g, Ca 57 mg, P 900 mg, Fe 2.8 mg, thiamin 0.15 mg, niacin 1.4 mg (Leung, W.-T.W., Busson, F. & Jardin, C., 1968).

All cucurbits contain triterpene glycosides called cucurbitacins. These compounds are present in all plant parts in different concentrations. If concentrated in the edible parts, they cause a bitter taste. The medicinal properties of the pumpkin may be attributed to these cucurbitacins, which can also be poisonous. In the United States cucurbitacin B is used as a feeding stimulant in the control of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera.

Clinical trials in Thailand confirmed that seed extracts can kill tapeworms and schistosomes (blood flukes). Tests in Japan with mice suggested that Cucurbita moschata extracts may be useful for the suppression of antibodies in certain allergic disorders.

Adulterations and substitutes

For the use of the fruits, leaves and seeds Cucurbita moschata can be substituted by those of Cucurbita maxima Duchesne, although the leaves of Cucurbita maxima are regarded as a bit coarse, this characteristic disappearing with cooking. The seeds of egusi (Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin and Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) are the most common cucurbit seed products.

Description

  • Annual, scandent herb, climbing by lateral, 3–4-branched tendrils, strongly branched; stems obtusely angular, long running, initially pubescent, often rooting at nodes.
  • Leaves alternate, simple, without stipules; petiole 9–24 cm long, grooved; blade broadly ovate in outline, shallowly palmately 5–7-lobed, (10–)20–35 cm in diameter, deeply cordate at base, margins toothed, softly hairy, sometimes with white markings disappearing at senescence, 3-veined from the base.
  • Flowers solitary, unisexual, regular, 5-merous, large, 10–20 cm in diameter, lemon yellow to deep orange; sepals free, subulate to linear, 1–3 cm long; corolla campanulate, with widely spreading lobes; male flowers long-pedicelled (up to 16 cm), with 3 stamens, filaments free, anthers usually connivent into a long twisted body; female flowers shortly pedicelled (up to 3.5 cm), with inferior, ellipsoid, 1-celled ovary, style thick, stigmas 3, 2-lobed.
  • Fruit a large, globose to ovoid or cylindrical berry, weighing up to 10 kg, with a wide range of colours, often covered with green spots and grey stripes, with small, raised, wartlike spots; flesh yellow to orange, many-seeded; fruit stalk enlarged at apex.
  • Seeds obovoid, flattened, 1–2 cm × 0.5–1 cm, usually white or tawny, sometimes dark-coloured, surface smooth to somewhat rough, margin prominent.
  • Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 2–3 cm long; cotyledons elliptical, 2–4 cm long, cuneate at base, obtuse at apex, entire.

Other botanical information

It is often not easy to distinguish Cucurbita moschata plants or fruits from the related Cucurbita pepo L. and Cucurbita maxima. The plant habit is similar and the fruit shape and size are variable. Distinction is easiest by observing differences of the fruit stalk, stems and leaves. Cucurbita moschata has a hard, smoothly angled fruit stalk widened at apex, hard, smoothly grooved stems and soft, moderately lobed leaves. Cucurbita maxima has a soft, rounded fruit stalk not enlarged at apex, soft, rounded stems and soft, usually unlobed leaves. Cucurbita pepo has an angular fruit stalk sometimes slightly widened at apex, hard, angular, grooved, prickly stems and palmately lobed, often deeply cut and prickly leaves.

Many landraces of Cucurbita moschata occur, the fruit form varying from cylindrical to globose or ovoid. For improved cultivars of Cucurbita moschata in the Americas three cultivar groups are distinguished, based on the fruit form:

– Cheese Group: fruit oblate (flattened), more or less ribbed, with buff-coloured rind and deep orange flesh;

– Crookneck Group: fruit elongated with curved or straight neck;

– Bell Group: fruit bell-shaped or cylindrical, e.g. cultivar ‘Butternut’.

Although rural farmers in Africa grow their own landraces, improved cultivars are slowly coming on to the African market.

Growth and development

Seed germinates in 5–7 days from sowing. The plants form an extensive fibrous root system. Growth is indeterminate; under suitable conditions, stems will continue to grow as long as they can root at the nodes and may reach a length of more than 20 m. Flowering starts 35–60 days after emergence and is more or less continuous. The ratio of male to female flowers is around 20:1. This ratio is influenced by the growing conditions. Long days and high temperatures favour the male sex expression. Pollen is sticky and production is abundant. Anthesis and pollination take place early in the morning. Insects, mainly bees, effect pollination; flowers are predominantly cross-pollinated. One or two fruits per stem develop. The fruit matures 30–40 days after pollination. The harvest period extends from 2 to 6 months after sowing.

Ecology

Musk pumpkin is grown in the tropics up to about 1800 m altitude. For optimal growth it needs high day temperatures, above 20°C and night temperatures above 14°C. It is almost photoperiod insensitive or shows a slight short-day reaction, and may be grown year round, although it is usually grown during the rainy season without any irrigation. It tolerates some shading. Musk pumpkin is not very demanding with respect to soil conditions and can be cultivated on almost any reasonably fertile, well-drained soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction (pH 5.5–6.8). It is fairly drought tolerant, but sensitive to frost and waterlogging. Excessive humidity during the rainy season stimulates the development of fungal and bacterial diseases causing leaf decay, wilting and fruit rot.

Propagation and planting

Musk pumpkin is grown from seed (1000-seed weight about 200 g). As it roots at the nodes it might be grown from cuttings, but this method is not practised except for research purposes. Farmers sow in small hills (planting holes) on flat land or raised beds, 2–4 seeds per hill. It can be sown in containers and the seedlings transplanted into the field when they are about 10 cm tall, but direct seeding is generally practised. A common planting distance is 2 m × 2 m, giving a plant population of 2500 hills/ha. The seed requirement is 2–3 kg/ha, but many farmers use much more seed, up to 7 kg/ha. Because of the branching and creeping plant habit, the optimal planting density is flexible; the number of hills (with 1–4 plants/hill) varies from 600 to 4000 per ha. ‘Butternut’ types are often grown at a spacing of 120 cm × 50–70 cm. With a dense planting, the soil will be covered and weed will be suppressed sooner.

Management

The traditional cropping system of musk pumpkin for leaves and/or fruit production is intercropping in maize or sorghum fields. It is also planted on termite hills, fertile patches of abandoned homesteads and kraals. Sole cropping is the appropriate system for commercial pumpkin production of improved cultivars, but in African countries this is still in its infancy. Pumpkins grow well on organic matter and are often encountered on refuse heaps. The crop responds well to farm manure and to side dressings of liquid manure. Depending on soil fertility, the following applications are recommended: 50–100 kg/ha N, 20–40 kg/ha P and 40–80 kg/ha K during the vegetative phase. A part of the minerals can be applied as a top dressing of NPK 10–10–10, e.g. 50 kg/ha at the first fruit setting. Irrigation should be applied under dry conditions, e.g. 50 mm weekly. Sometimes the tips are removed to check growth and promote branching.

In intensive cultivation in South East Asia, recommended cultural practices include the use of plastic mulch, removal of growing tips to improve branching and development, bagging fruits in paper to protect against fruit fly, and sometimes even manual pollination to increase fruit set.

Diseases and pests

Many diseases and pests attack Cucurbita moschata, but only a few are really problematic. Alternaria leafspot or leaf blight caused by Alternaria cucumerina is a fungus disease, which may defoliate and kill affected plants within weeks. This fungus also causes fruit rot. In affected plants, small round whitish necrotic spots, later with concentric circles, appear on the oldest leaves; these turn grey and yellow and dry out. Use of healthy seed, removal of plant debris and crop rotation are means to control the disease. Gummy stem blight (gummy canker) on stems and black rot on fruits caused by Didymella bryoniae (anamorph: Phoma cucurbitacearum) is a serious cause of crop losses everywhere. First the nodes with nearly ripe fruits are attacked, they become oily-green and sap exudes forming drops of gum. The stem beyond the affected area wilts. The fungus also causes seedling death and fruit stalk canker. Control is possible by using healthy seed, protective fungicides (e.g. mancozeb) and crop rotation. No cultivar resistance has been reported. Downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis may become a devastating disease under high air humidity. It starts on older leaves with pale green to yellowish angular spots, bounded by leaf veins. The lower surface is covered with a faint purplish fungus-fruiting layer and the entire leaf rolls upwards and dies. Downy mildew can be controlled by wide spacing, good drainage and aeration, and crop rotation. Resistance has been found in India. Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum) causes yellowing of the leaves followed by wilting and stunting of stems or the whole plant. Control is possible by using healthy seed, removal of debris, crop rotation, and avoiding excessive nitrogen fertilization. Resistance has been observed. Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lagenarium is a destructive disease worldwide . It causes defoliation and lesions on the fruits. Day temperatures of 26–30°C combined with night temperatures of 18–20°C and intermittent rain are most congenial to disease development. Seed treatment and applying systemic fungicides may provide effective control. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) may occur under low humidity. The upper side of the leaves is covered with the white powdery fungus growth, and the leaves become yellowish and dry out. Control is possible with fungicides and resistance has been found. Other diseases are scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum) causing small spots on all plant parts, and Choanephora wet rot (Choanephora cucurbitarum) causing fruit rot. Important virus diseases are cucumber mosaic (CMV), papaya ring spot (PRSV-W), squash leaf curl (SLCV), watermelon mosaic (WMV-2) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). These viruses often occur in combination. They are spread by mechanical infection and insects, and probably to some extent by seed transmission. The risk of contamination is reduced by keeping the population of virus-transmitting insects (aphids, whitefly and thrips) low. Partial resistance is present in some cultivars. The USA butternut cultivar ‘Batangas Native’ is resistant to CMV. The Philippine cultivars ‘Arjuna F1’ and ‘Oringo F1’ (East West Seed Company) are highly tolerant to viruses.

Insect pests are seldom serious on musk pumpkin. Whiteflies (e.g. Bemisia spp.) and spider mites (Tetranychus spp.) may cause damage. Whiteflies cause silvering of the leaves. Leaf-feeding Epilachna beetles may be harmful on young plants. The gourd ladybird Henosepilachna elaterii is reported as a major pest on pumpkins in Sudan.

Harvesting

The elongating stems supply a good quantity of leaves, which are removed in succession. When grown as leaf vegetable, usually the third and fourth leaves are harvested, while the tip and second leaves are left to grow. Young leaves and shoots are picked when needed. The leaf harvest may start 6 weeks after sowing and may be continued for at least 2 months with one harvest per week. Care should be taken that one does not tread on the stems. Male flowers are sometimes harvested for consumption.

Pumpkin fruits are picked when nearly or fully mature 4–6 weeks after flowering, and are harvested in several rounds until the crop ends, 90–180 days after planting. Some farmers will leave the fruits lying in the fields for weeks. Seeds are extracted as the fruits are consumed. Some seeds are stored for future planting and others are used as food.

Yield

The number of mature fruits harvested per plant is low, and the weight of individual fruits varies widely from 1–10 kg, mainly depending on cultivar. Under low input conditions, the yield is around 5 t/ha; with good care, a yield of 15 t/ha is reasonable. With improved cultivars a yield of 30 t/ha is attainable. An average yield of leaves is 2 t/ha per picking, or about 20 t/ha during a harvest period of two months. Seed yield is variable, possibly 300–500 kg/ha. If grown for seed production, isolation between fields of musk pumpkin and of other Cucurbita species is recommended, not only to maintain seed purity, but also to obtain maximum yields, as pollen of other species may cause reduced fruit set and parthenocarpic fruits. In proper seed extraction procedures, mature fruits are split and the seed is collected, fermented, washed, cleaned and dried.

Handling after harvest

As the leaves of musk pumpkin are highly perishable, many people prefer to grow the crop in their own garden, rather than buying it in the market. When grown for sale at local markets, leaves are tied in bundles and these are kept moist, e.g. under a jute bag. Leaves are often stored in dried form. For that purpose, they are cut into small pieces and spread in the open to dry during 1–2 days depending on weather conditions. The dried leaves are stored in containers and are used during the dry season. Fruits can be stored a long time on slatted shelves with good ventilation, the butternut type for at least one month, big pumpkins for several months; storage at 10–16oC and 70% humidity is most appropriate. In cool store, chilling injury occurs at temperatures below 10°C. Pumpkin flesh can also be dried in strips for later use in soups and stews.

Genetic resources

Cucurbita species are well represented in the Cucurbitaceae germplasm collections of many institutions all over the world. The National Seed Storage Laboratory (NSSL), Fort Collins, Colorado, United States, and the Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR), St. Petersburg, Russia maintain important base collections. Large collection of Cucurbita moschata are present in the genebank of NBPGR in New Delhi, India, at NPGRL, Los Baños, the Philippines, at NIAS, Ibaraki, Japan, at INIA, Celaya, Mexico, and at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. Little attention has been given to the African landraces. Nigerian local cultivars, known as ‘Nigeria Local’ are used by western seed companies as genitors for virus resistance (CMV, PRSV, WMV and ZYMV). In Malawi, an evaluation of 121 local pumpkin landraces showed great variation in fruit sizes, shape and colour; a combination of mean fruit weight and number of fruits per plant are valuable characters for yield improvement. In Zimbabwe, large numbers of local accessions discernible by fruit colour, size, rind hardness, flavour, texture and keeping quality have been selected. Systematic collection is urgently needed. Cucurbita moschata is a mandate species of the Southern African Developing Countries Plant Genetic Resources Centre (SPGRC) at Lusaka, Zambia.

Breeding

Cucurbita moschata is naturally cross-pollinated but self-compatible, inbreeding causing little loss of vigour. A considerable degree of heterosis of inbred lines has been observed. Hand-pollination of the large flowers is an easy operation. Seed companies are less interested in open-pollinated cultivars and commercialize many F1-hybrids. Seed company Technisem developed the F1 cultivar ‘Martinica’ especially for tropical lowland. Breeding work in the tropics is rare and very little breeding work has been reported from tropical Africa. The South African F1 cultivar ‘Barbara’ is a butternut type introduced in southern Africa (Zimbabwe, Zambia). It combines earliness, high-yielding capacity, disease resistance and a high carotene content. About 30 genes known to control qualitative characters have been described in the cultivated Cucurbita species. Desirable traits are available in related wild species, such as powdery mildew resistance in Cucurbita lundelliana L.H.Bailey. A study of molecular markers in 31 landraces from Zambia and Malawi revealed 4 clusters of genotypes.

The interspecific cross of Cucurbita moschata with Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita mixta Pangalo results in a viable F1 but sterile progeny; with Cucurbita pepo in sparingly fertile F1 plants, the F2 plants being sterile; with Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché in fruits without seed. A Japanese company developed a commercial interspecific F1 hybrid with Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata lines as parents. No spontaneous hybridization between the five cultivated Cucurbita species (Cucurbita ficifolia, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, Cucurbita moschata and Cucurbita pepo) has been reported. Results of interspecific hybridization suggest that the sterility barriers are genic rather than the result of a lack of chromosomal homology, which means that heterozygosity improves the chances of obtaining interspecific hybrids.

Prospects

Cucurbita moschata is a highly appreciated, multipurpose vegetable, easy to cultivate, potentially high yielding and with a high nutritional value. It has been neglected by formal research. In Africa cultural practices are still extensive and yield levels are low; (almost) no breeding for yield, disease resistance and quality has been performed. With the introduction of improved cultivars, ancient landraces are in danger of disappearing. Germplasm collection of African landraces deserves priority. In addition to development of improved cultivars for the fruits, attention should be paid to the potential of the leaves and seed, and to seed as a source of vegetable fat and protein. Hybrid cultivars with virus resistance genes have a large potential.

Major references

  • Bates, D.M., Robinson, R.W. & Jeffrey, C. (Editors), 1990. Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Cornell University Press, New York, United States. 485 pp.
  • Burkill, H.M., 1985. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 1, Families A–D. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 960 pp.
  • Guha, J. & Sen, S.P., 1998. Physiology, biochemistry and medicinal importance. In: Nayar, N.M. & More, T.A. (Editors). Cucurbits. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield NH, United States. pp. 97–127.
  • Messiaen, C.-M., 1989. Le potager tropical. 2nd Edition. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris, France. 580 pp.
  • Purseglove, J.W., 1968. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Longman, London, United Kingdom. 719 pp.
  • Robinson, R.W. & Decker-Walters, D.S., 1997. Cucurbits. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 226 pp.
  • Sherf, A.F. & MacNab, A.A., 1986. Vegetable diseases and their control. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, United States. 728 pp.
  • Stevels, J.M.C., 1990. Légumes traditionnels du Cameroun: une étude agrobotanique. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 90–1. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. 262 pp.
  • van Epenhuijsen, C.W., 1974. Growing native vegetables in Nigeria. FAO, Rome, Italy. 113 pp.
  • Widjaja, E.A. & Sukprakarn, S., 1993. Cucurbita L. In: Siemonsma, J.S. & Kasem Piluek (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8. Vegetables. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands. pp. 160–165.

Other references

  • Blancard, D., Lecoq, H. & Pitrat, M., 1994. A colour atlas of cucurbit diseases: observation, identification and control. Manson Publishing, London, United Kingdom. 299 pp.
  • Chigumira Ngwerume, F., 2000. Survey of literature on mandate vegetable species of the SADC Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Lusaka Zambia, occurring in Zimbabwe. Regional Vegetable Crop Working Group Report, May 2000. pp. 98–99.
  • Chigumira Ngwerume, F. & Mvere, B., 1999. The status of traditional leafy vegetables in Zimbabwe. In: Chweya, J.A. & Eyzaguire (Editors). The biodiversity of traditional leafy vegetables. IPGRI, Rome, Italy. pp. 155–171.
  • Chigwe, C.F.B. & Saka, V.W., 1994. Collection and characterization of Malawi pumpkin germplasm. Zimbabwe Journal of Agricultural Research 32: 139–147.
  • Esquinas-Alcazar, J.T. & Gulick, P.J., 1983. Genetic resources of Cucurbitaceae. IBPGR, Rome, Italy. 101 pp.
  • Gwanama, C., Labuschagne, M. & Botha, A.M., 2000. Analysis of genetic variation in Cucurbita moschata by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Euphytica 113(1): 19–24.
  • Holland, B., Unwin, I.D. & Buss, D.H., 1991. Vegetables, herbs and spices. The fifth supplement to McCance & Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods. 4th Edition. Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 163 pp.
  • Leung, W.-T.W., Busson, F. & Jardin, C., 1968. Food composition table for use in Africa. FAO, Rome, Italy. 306 pp.
  • Messiaen, C.-M., Blancard, D., Rouxel, F. & Lafon, R., 1991. Les maladies des plantes maraîchères. 3rd Edition. INRA, Paris, France. 552 pp.
  • Mnzava, N. & Mbewe, J.E., 1997. African traditional vegetables. Selecting dual purpose local pumpkins Cucurbita moschata (Duch. ex Lam.). Report.
  • Pamplona-Roger, G.D., 1999. Encyclopaedia of medicinal plants. In: Gelabert, F., Carmona, R. & Gonzalez, P. (Editors). Encyclopaedia of medicinal plants. Volume 2. Graficas Reunidas, Madrid, Spain. 795 pp.
  • Paris, H.S., 2000. First two publications by Duchesne of Cucurbita moschata (Cucurbitaceae). Taxon 49: 305–319.
  • Sanjur, O.I., Piperno, D.R., Andres, T.C. & Wessel-Beaver, L., 2002. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(1): 535–540.
  • Sharma, B.R. & Tarsem Lal, 1998. Improvement and cultivation: Cucurbita and Benincasa. In: Nayar, N.M. & More, T.A. (Editors). Cucurbits. Science Publishers Inc., Enfield NH, United States. pp. 155–168.
  • Sherf, A.F. & MacNab, A.A., 1986. Vegetable diseases and their control. 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, United States. 728 pp.
  • Tindall, H.D., 1983. Vegetables in the tropics. Macmillan Press, London, United Kingdom. 533 pp.
  • Whitaker, T.W. & Davis, G.N., 1962. Cucurbits - botany, cultivation and utilization. Leonard Hill, London, United Kingdom. 249 pp.

Sources of illustration

  • Purseglove, J.W., 1968. Tropical Crops. Dicotyledons. Longman, London, United Kingdom. 719 pp.
  • Stevels, J.M.C., 1990. Légumes traditionnels du Cameroun: une étude agrobotanique. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 90–1. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands. 262 pp.
  • Vaughan, J.G. & Geissler, C.A., 1997. The new Oxford book of food plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. 239 pp.

Author(s)

  • G.J.H. Grubben, Boeckweijdt Consult, Prins Hendriklaan 24, 1401 AT Bussum, Netherlands
  • F. Chigumira Ngwerume, Horticultural Research Centre, P.O. Box 810, Marondera, Zimbabwe

Correct citation of this article

Grubben, G.J.H. & Chigumira Ngwerume, F., 2004. Cucurbita moschata Duchesne. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands.

Accessed 13 November 2018.