Canarium luzonicum (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray

Protologue: U.S. Expl. Exped., Phan.: 374 (1854).


  • Canarium carapifolium Perkins (1904),
  • Canarium polyanthum Perkins (1904),
  • Canarium oliganthum Merr. (1915).

Vernacular names

  • Philippines: piling-liitan (Filipino), belis (Tagalog), malapili (Bikol).


The Philippines.


The wood is used as kedondong, e.g. for light construction. A valuable volatile oil known under the trade name "Manila elemi" can be distilled from the resin; it has been commercially exported for the manufacture of varnish and of medicinal ointments. In China, it has been used to manufacture transparent paper used for window panes. The seeds are edible. The bark yields a tannin of satisfactory quality.


  • A medium-sized to fairly large tree up to 35 m tall, bole up to 100 cm in diameter, bark surface flaky, greyish, inner bark exuding resin; stipules caducous to subpersistent, inserted on the base of the petiole, orbicular.
  • Leaves with 7-11 leaflets, leaflets with a gradually and long blunt-acuminate apex, margin entire, glabrous, with 14-18 pairs of secondary veins.
  • Inflorescence axillary, paniculate.
  • Male flowers 2.5-4 mm long, female ones 6-8 mm long, stamens 3-6 in the male and 6 in the female flower.
  • Fruit broadly ovoid to ellipsoid, circular to bluntly triangular in cross-section, 25-38 mm × 15-20 mm, glabrous.

C. luzonicum occurs in primary forest at low and medium altitude. See also the table on wood properties.

Selected sources

68, 78, 125, 162, 526, 532, 544, 646.

Main genus page