Camellia-Canna (Sturtevant, 1919)

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Cadaba-Camelina
Sturtevant, Notes on edible plants, 1919
Camellia-Canna (Sturtevant, 1919)
Cannabis-Capsella


Camellia sasanqua Thunb.

Ternstroemiaceae (Theaceae). TEA-OIL PLANT.

Japan and China. This plant was introduced from China to England in 1811. It yields a nut from which an oil is expressed in China, equal, it is said, to olive oil. In Japan the dried leaves are mixed with tea to give it a grateful odor.

Camellia thea Link.

TEA.

China. This is the species to which the cultivated varieties of tea are all referred. In its various forms it is now found in China and Japan, in the mountains that separate China from the Burmese territories, especially in upper Assam, in Nepal, in the islands of Bourbon, Java, St. Helena and Madeira, in Brazil and experimentally in the United States. The first mention of tea seems to have been by Giovanni Pietro Maffei in his Historiae Indicae, 1589, from which it appears that it was then called by the Chinese chia. Giovanni Botero in his Delia Cause della grandezza...delta citta, 1589, says the Chinese have an herb from which they extract a delicate juice, which they use instead of wine. In 1615, an Englishman in Japan, in the employment of the East India Company, sent to a brother official at Macao for a "pot of the best chaw," and this is supposed to be the earliest known mention by an Englishman. Adam Olearius describes the use of tea in Persia in 1633, and says—his book being published in 164 —"this herb is now so well known in most parts of Europe, where many persons of quality use it with good success." In 1638, Mandelslo visited Japan and about this time wrote of the tsia or tea of Japan.

Prior to 1657, tea was occasionally sold in England at prices ranging from $30 to $50 a pound. In 1661, Mr. Pepys, secretary of the British Admiralty, speaks of "tea (a China drink) of which I had never drank before," and in 1664, the Dutch India Company presented two pounds and two ounces to the King of England as a rare and valuable offering and in 1667 this company imported 100 pounds. In 1725, there were imported into England 370,323 pounds; in 1775, the quantity had increased to 5,648,188 pounds. In 1863, upwards of 136,000,000 pounds were imported of which 85,206,779 pounds were entered for home consumption. In 1863, the United States received 29,761,037 pounds and 72,077,951 pounds in 1880.

In 1810, the first tea plants were carried to Rio Janeiro, together with several hundred Chinese experienced in its culture. The government trials do not seem to have resulted favorably but later, the business being taken up by individuals, its culture seems to be meeting with success and the tea of Brazil, called by its Chinese name of cha, enters quite largely into domestic consumption. In 1848, Junius Smith, of South Carolina, imported a number of shrubs and planted them at Greenville. At about the same time some 32,000 plants were imported from China and distributed through the agency of the Patent Office. In 1878, the Department of Agriculture distributed 69,000 plants. In Louisiana, in 1870, a plantation of tea shrubs, three to four hundred in number, is said to have existed.

Campanula edulis Forsk.

Campanulaceae. BELLFLOWER.

Arabia. The root is thick, sapid and is eaten by children.

Campanula persicifolia Linn.

PEACH BELLS.

Europe and north Asia. This plant has been used as food in England but has long since fallen into disuse. In France it is called cloche and is grown as a flowering plant.

Campanula rapunculoides Linn.

CREEPING BELLFLOWER.

Europe and temperate Asia. This plant may be substituted in cultivation for rampion. It has long since fallen into disuse.

Campanula rapunculus Linn.

RAMPION.

Europe, Orient, north Africa and northern Asia. This biennial plant was formerly much cultivated in gardens for its roots as well as its leaves. Loudon says the latter are excellent, eaten raw as a salad or boiled as a spinach, and the root, which has the flavor of walnuts, is also eaten raw like a radish or mixed with salads, either raw or boiled and cold. It is much cultivated in France and Italy, says Johns.

Rampion is recorded in gardens by Pena and Lobel, 1570, and is figured by Tragus, 1552, Lobel, 1576, as well as by other writers of this period, as an improved root. In 1726, Townsend says it is to be found in only few English gardens; and Bryant, 1783, says it is much cultivated in France but in England is now little regarded. It is recorded in American gardens in 1806, 1819 and 1821. As late as 1877, an English writer says rampion is a desirable addition to winter salads.

Campomanesia aromatica Griseb.

Myrtaceae. GUAVA STRAWBERRY.

Guiana and Cayenne. At Martinique, where this shrub is cultivated, it is called guava strawberry, because the flavor of its delicate pulp reminds one of the Pine strawberry. The fruit is edible.

Campomanesia lineatifolia Ruiz & Pav.

Peru. This species furnishes edible fruit.

Canarina campanulata Linn.

Campanulaceae.

Canary Islands. The fleshy capsule, roots and young shoots are said to be edible."

Canarium album Raeusch.

Burseraceae. CANARIUM

A tree native of China and Cochin China, Anam and the Philippines. The fruit is pickled and used as olives.

Canarium commune Linn.

CHINESE OLIVE. JAVA ALMOND.

Moluccas. This fine-looking tree is cultivated for the sake of its fruit which, in taste, is something like an almond. An oil is expressed from the seed which in Java is used in lamps and when fresh is mixed with food. Bread is also made from its nuts in the island of Celebes. In Ceylon, the nut is called wild almond by Europeans and is eaten.

Canarium edule Hook. f.

Tropical Africa. This is the safu of the island of St. Thomas in the Gulf of Guinea, where its fruit is much esteemed. In taste, the fruit is bitter and astringent; it is usually roasted.

Canarium pimela Kon.

Cochin China, China and Java. The black fruit is sometimes pickled.

Canarium sylvestre Gaertn.

Amboina. The plant bears nuts with edible kernels.

Canavalia ensiformis DC.

Leguminosae. HORSE BEAN. OVERLOOK. SWORD BEAN.

Tropical Africa. This climbing plant is commonly cultivated about Bombay. The half-grown pods are eaten. It is cultivated in the Peninsula for its esculent pods; in Burma to a small extent, where its young pods are eaten; and also in the Philippines. The plant is common in woods in the East Indies, tropical Africa, Mexico, Brazil and the West Indies. It is called overlook by the negroes of Jamaica.6 Elliott7 says it is found only in a cultivated state and is probably the domesticated form of C. virosa. Firminger says it is a native vegetable of India, the pod large, flat, sword-shaped, fully nine inches long, and more than an inch and a quarter wide. Though rather coarse-looking, yet when sliced and boiled, is exceedingly tender and little, if any, inferior to the French bean. Roxburgh describes three varieties: flowers and seeds red; flowers white and seeds red; flowers and large seed white. This last variety is considered the best and is used on the tables of Europeans as well as by the natives of Sylhet where it is indigenous. Drury says it is a common plant in hedges and thickets and in cultivation. It is called in India mukhun seen.

Canella alba Murr.

Canellaceae. WILD CINNAMON.

West Indies. The bark is employed by the negroes as a condiment and has. some reputation as an antiscorbutic.

Canna achiras Gill.

Scitamineae (Cannaceae). CANNA.

South Africa. This plant is said to furnish tubers used as food in Peru and Chile. It is one of the species cultivated in the West Indies for the manufacture of the arrowroot known as tous les mois according to Balfour.

Canna coccinea Mill.

INDIAN SHOT.

East Indies. This plant is said by Mueller and Balfour to yield the tous les mois of the West Indies.

Canna edulis Ker-Gawl.

American tropics. This plant is cultivated in the islands of St. Christopher, Trinidad and probably elsewhere. The tubers are said to be quite large and when rasped to a pulp furnish, by washing and straining, one of the classes of arrowroot known as tous les mois. It is one of the hardiest of arrowroot plants. It is the adeira or ackiras of Peru.

Canna glauca Linn.

Mexico and West Indies. This is one of the West Indian arrowroot cannas.