Calligonum setosum (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Calligonum microcarpum
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Calligonum setosum (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Rheum turkestanicum
Calligonum setosum
Calligonum setosum
Calligonum erinaceum
Calligonum erinaceum
Calligonum rotula
Calligonum tetrapterum
Calligonum tetrapterum
Calligonum rubicundum
Calligonum rubicundum


Calligonum setosum Litv.

Local name:

  • Russian: Кандым Щетинистый, Чакич - kandym ščetinistyj, čakič
  • Uzbek: Chakich

Chromosome number: 2n = 36 (Aleksandrova and Soskov 1968); 2n = 80 (Menshikova 1964b).

Description and morphology: Perennial woody bush (height 2–3 m), strongly branched. Strong pivotal root system to depth 12–14 m with superficial roots. Stem: grey-silvery branches, partially recurved. Leaves: small, inconspicuous, insignificant (5–7 mm), linear or thread-sharp. Perianth, pentamerous (3 mm), white with green average vein. Flowers: bisexual, seldom unisexual; small, stamens arranged in 2 circles; anther cut by longitudinal cracks. Pollen grain 3-celled, multiporous. Ovary superior with one orthotropous, bitegmic, crassi-nucellate ovule. Polymorphism of flower’s organs.

Reproduction: Sexual (seedling/transplanting). Entomophilous, less often self-pollination and geitonogamy reported. Polyembryony, cleistogamy and parthenocarpy. Flowering: May. Fruit maturation: May–June. Fruit: spherical indehiscent nut (20–25 mm wide, edges 1.0–1.5 wide), wings lanceolate at base with rectangular hollow; above orbicular. Bristles on surface identical length, thin, soft (7–8 mm), strong, two and three times slightly ramified. Seed: large perisperm, large embryo and endosperm. Dormancy A2–B2 type. Field germination: 8–10%; laboratory germination: 40–65%. Seed viability 7 years. Long-term treatment (0–4 °C) for 1.5–2.5 months, or treatment with sulphuric acid (for 4–8 hours) significantly increases germination both in the field and laboratory.

Pastoral importance: Good forage for sheep and camels in spring and June. Fruits and young stems consumed all year round by all livestock. An early colonizer of sandy rangeland and sand dunes. Valuable in May and beginning of June during grazing season as provides forage rich in vitamins. Poor contribution to biomass (15–100 kg/ha).

Fodder value: In spring-summer contains (% DM): crude protein 7.3–7.9; fat 0.9-1.1; cellulose 20–33; nitrogen-free extract 35–51. Significant quantity of amino acids (mg/kg): lysine 6.6; arginine 6.3; asparagine 8.7; glutamine 18.0; proline 9.5; leucine 7.0; alanine 5.4. At fruit stage (% DM): ash 11–16; protein 15; fat 2.1; cellulose 21; nitrogen-free extract 55. Macro- and micro-elements (mg/kg): Ca 44.3; K 13.1; Mg 13.2; Na 1.9. Forage value estimated about 72 FU and 7.4 kg digestible protein/100 kg DM. Rich in vitamin C.

Economic interest: Fodder; also medicinal, industrial, fuel, honey and food plant.

Habitat: Psammophyte. Mostly found on shifting sands, common on grey-brown sandy soils of the Kyzylkum. Often occurs in pure stands. Reputed to be slightly salt-tolerant.

Distribution: Middle Asia, Balkash and Aral regions, Kyzylkum and Karakum deserts.

Other: Calligonum spp.