Calligonum arborescens (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Atraphaxis spinosa
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Calligonum arborescens (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Calligonum caput-medusae
Calligonum arborescens in Moyunkum (Kazakhstan)


Calligonum arborescens Litv.

Local name:

  • Russian: Кандим древовидный - kandym drevovidnyj
  • Uzbek: Ok kondim

Chromosome number: 2n = 18 (Volovich and Soskov unpublished data).

Description and morphology: Perennial woody shrub or small tree (height up to 2–3 m) with almost erect branches. Flowers: light pink; anthers purple.

Reproduction: Sexual. Flowering: April–May. Fruit maturation: June. Fruit: achene (9–11 mm long, 5–7 mm wide), woody, ovate, yellow without wings (28–32 mm long, 25–28 mm wide). Spines fragile, rough (10–15 mm long), sparsely distributed in 2 ranks on fruit’s rib. Seed: oblong.

Pastoral importance: Large biomass produced. Well grazed by all livestock.

Fodder value: Good to excellent.

Economic interest: Roots are rich in tannins (1.5%). Strong sand binder. Source of fuelwood (charcoal).

Habitat: Psammophyte. Occurs on mobile sand and sand dunes mixed in Haloxylon-Ammodendron plant communities.

Distribution: Irano-Turanian region and Middle and Central Asia (Fergana valley).