Amygdalus spinosissima (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Delphinium bucharicum
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Amygdalus spinosissima (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Populus diversifolia
Amygdalus spinosissima
Amygdalus spinosissima
Amygdalus spinosissima, Karnab
Amygdalus spinosissima in Kopetdag (Turkmenistan)

Amygdalus spinosissima Bge

Local name:

  • Russian: Миндаль колючейший, бодомча, карчонак - mindal' koljučejšij, bodomča, karčonak
  • Uzbek: Bodomcha, Sertikan, Bodom, Karchonak

Chromosome number: 2n = 16 (Abdushukurova 1962).

Description and morphology: Perennial shrubsmall thorny tree (height 1.5–2 m). Stem: end of old stems pointed, strong spine, spiky. Bark dark or grey. New shoots usually glabrous, dark red, partly covered with dense short hairs. Leaves: narrow or widely lanceolate (1.5– 2.6 cm long, 3–5 cm wide), pointed and serrated on margins. Flowers: bisexual, or frequently functional male; (6–8 mm diameter), 12–16 or more stamens. Hypanthium (5–7 mm long), narrow-cylindrical, dark crimson.

Reproduction: Sexual. Flowering: March–April. Fruit maturation: June. Fruit: ovate, incurvate, pubescent drupe (12–15 long, 10–12 mm wide). Stone seed with a soft pericarp, oval or spherical, light brown, shortly pointed. Seed: large embryo and remains of endosperm. Seed coat thin. Dormancy A2–B type. Requires longterm cold stratification (0–5 °C) for 3 months or has to be sown in the autumn. Isolated embryo germinates quickly.

Pastoral importance: Young shoots and leaves emerging from thorny shrub grazed occasionally by all livestock. Wood eagerly collected as fuel and consequently is rapidly disappearing. Useful shrub-tree for soil conservation operations on steep slopes.

Fodder value: Negligible.

Economic interest: A valuable source of oil for use in perfume and confectionery industries. Salted almonds used as dry fruits by population. Long since used in traditional medicine.

Habitat: Occurs on rocky-gravelly slopes of most steep hills and low mountains in the adyr region and Karnabchol.

Distribution: Common shrub in Middle and Central Asia (Pamir-Alai, western Tien Shan and Kopetdag), Afghanistan and eastern Mediterranean regions.