Agathis philippinensis (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Agathis philippinensis Warb.

Protologue: Monsunia 1: 185, t. 8E (1900).


  • Agathis regia Warb. (1900),
  • Agathis dammara auct. non (Lambert) Rich.

Vernacular names

  • Indonesia: goga, solo (Sulawesi)
  • Philippines: almaciga (general).


The Philippines, Sulawesi and the northern Moluccas.


A. philippinensis is an important source of kauri timber and the trees are tapped for Manila copal.


  • A very large tree of up to 60 m tall.
  • Adult leaves ovate, 4.5-6 cm × 1.5-2 cm, slightly to distinctly acute at the apex, tapering at base into a 5-8 mm long petiole.
  • Mature pollen cones 2.5-4.5 cm × 1.0-1.1 cm, microsporophylls with a helmet-shaped and very slightly angled apex of 2-2.5 mm × 1.5-2 mm.
  • Seed cones oval, 7-9 cm × 12 cm, seed bracts obtriangular-ovate with broadly rounded upper corners and a small projection at the base on one side.
  • Seed with a broadly acute projection on one upper corner and a wing on the other.

A. philippinensis occurs scattered and often as an emergent tree in upland rain forest at (250-)1200-2200 m altitude. It is sometimes regarded as conspecific with A. dammara. The density of the wood is 470-660 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Selected sources

146, 163, 180, 244, 279, 280, 453, 478, 565, 566, 748, 774.


  • C.C.H. Jongkind (selection of species)

Main genus page