Xanthium-Xysmalobium (Sturtevant, 1919)

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Sturtevant, Notes on edible plants, 1919
Xanthium-Xysmalobium (Sturtevant, 1919)

Xanthium strumarium Linn.

Compositae. BUR WEED.

Cosmopolitan. In China, the leaves and shoots are eaten as a vegetable.

Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.


China. The flowers, leaves and fruit are used for food.

Xanthorrhoea arborea R. Br.

Juncaceae. GRASS GUM TREE.

An Australian tree. The tender, white center of the leaves is used as a vegetable.

Xanthorrhoea hastilis R. Br.


Southern Australia. The tender, inner leaves are esculent and far from disagreeable, having a milky taste with a slight, balsamic flavor.

Xanthosoma sagittifolium Schott.


Tropical America. This plant is generally planted in Jamaica for the use of the table. Lunan says, in wholesomeness and delicacy, it is superior to spinach and vies with any European vegetable whatever. The roots are said to be edible. Starch is obtained from the rootstocks.

Ximenia americana Linn.


Cosmopolitan tropics. The fruits resemble yellow plums, are edible and of an agreeable taste. They have an acid-sweet, aromatic taste, with some degree of austerity. The plant bears round, orange-colored fruits, of which the natives of the Fiji and other islands of the Pacific Ocean are very fond, though they are rather tart. Before they are ripe they possess a powerful odor of essential oil of almonds. In the Circars, its yellow fruit, which is about the size of a pigeon's egg, is eaten by the natives.

Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich.


Tropical Africa. A tall shrub whose fruit, consisting of a number of smooth, pod-like carpels about the thickness of a quill and two inches long, is dried and used instead of pepper. The seeds have an aromatic, pungent taste and were formerly sold in English shops under the name of Ethiopian pepper, Guinea pepper and Negro pepper.

Xylopia frutescens Aubl.

Tropical America. The seeds have an acrid, aromatic taste and are used by the negroes in Guiana instead of pepper.

Xylopia glabra Linn.


Jamaica. The wood, bark and berries have an agreeable, bitter taste, not unlike that of the orange seed. Freshly gathered from the tree, the berries are agreeable to the palate and grateful to the stomach.

Xylopia sericea A. St. Hil.

Brazil. Arruda says the capsules have the taste and pungency of black pepper and are used by many as a spice in cooking and by some are preferred even to pepper. The fruit, says St. Hilaire, has the odor and taste of pepper but is not as strong. It can be employed as a spice.

Xylopia undulata Beauv.

Tropical Africa. It also furnishes a similar spice.

Xysmalobium heudelotianum Decne.


Tropical Africa. The plant has a watery, turnip-shaped root, called yakhop by the negroes, by whom it is eaten.