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Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003

G. Gintzburger, K. N. Toderich, B. K. Mardonov and M. M. Mahmudov, 2003. Rangelands of the arid and semi-arid zones in Uzbekistan. CIRAD - ICARDA. 432 p. ISBN 978-2-7592-0673-5

  • CIRAD : Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement
  • ICARDA : International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

With the support of:

  • CIRAD-EMVT, Département d’Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire
  • ECONAP, Programme Ecosystèmes naturels et pastoraux, France
  • Uzbekistan Scientific Production Centre of Agricultural Research, Uzbekistan
  • Academy of Science of Uzbekistan, Samarkand Division, Uzbekistan
  • Karakul Sheep and Desert Ecology Research Institute, Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  • World Bank
  • Global Livestock CRSP, Livestock Development and Rangeland Conservation Tools Project in Central Asia, USA
  • USDA/ARS, Central Asian Range and Sheep Evaluation Project, USA
  • Wallace Research Foundation, USA
  • IGF, Fondation Internationale pour la Conservation de la Faune Sauvage, France
  • INRA, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, France


Forewords 9
Preface 11
Introduction 15
The pastoral system 16
A brief physico-geographical and ecological presentation of Uzbekistan 21
The environment 22
Geology and geomorphology 22
Climatology and bioclimatology 26
Arid and semi-arid soils 35
Phytogeography 40
Current changes in land use, crop yield and livestock numbers 45
The flora and main vegetation types of the arid and semi-arid zones 50
Plant family contribution to the vegetation 50
Main vegetation types of the arid and semi-arid zones 53
Plant descriptions 87
Ecology, biology and economic importance of arid and semi-arid rangeland plants 275
Biological and life forms 276
Small trees and shrubs (microphanerophytes and nanophanerophytes) 276
Small shrubs (chamaephytes) 276
Herbaceous plants (perennials and biannuals) 277
Chemical composition, fodder value and palatability 278
Toxic and medicinal plants 280
Plants that may cause mechanical injuries to livestock 283
Seed characteristics and germination ecology 283
Seed morphology and germination conditions 283
Seed viability 286
Seed dormancy 287
Range improvement and rehabilitation in Uzbekistan 295
Collecting and evaluating the phytogenetic resources 297
Range improvement operations/establishment and regeneration techniques 300
Land preparation and disturbance 301
Seeding time 302
Depth of seeding 303
Seeding rate 303
Expected improvement and production 305
Nature reserves in Uzbekistan 313
Reserves in desert ecosystems 315
The Kyzylkum reserve (sandy part) 315
The Karakul reserve (’zakaznik’) 320
The Ecological Breeding Centre ‘Dzheiran’ 320
Reserves of riparian forests and wetland ecosystems 322
The Kyzylkum reserve (tugaï part) 323
The relict riparian forest fragments of the Badai-Tugaï nature reserve 325
The Aral-Paigambar reserve 326
The Zerafshan reserve 327
Reserves in the mountain ecosystem 329
The Nuratau mountains walnut-fruit forests biosphere reserve 329
The Gissar reserve 330
The Chatkal biosphere reserve 332
The Kitab geological reserve 333
The Zaamin forest reserve 334
General conclusions 337
Maps 339
Bibliography 351
Uzbek glossary 368
Appendix 377
Index 405

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A (scientific) transliteration has been added to the names in Russian.