Eurotia ewersmanniana (Gintzburger et al., 2003)

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Ceratocarpus arenarius
Gintzburger et al., Rangelands in Uzbekistan, 2003
Eurotia ewersmanniana (Gintzburger et al., 2003)
Gamanthus gamocarpus
Eurotia ewersmanniana
Eurotia ewersmanniana
Eurotia ewersmanniana
Eurotia ewersmanniana

Eurotia ewersmanniana Stschegl. Ex Losinsk.

Local name:

  • Russian: Терескен Эверсмана - teresken Èversmana
  • Uzbek: Teresken

Chromosome number: 2n = 18, 36 (Wulff 1936; Zosimovich 1965; Turner 1994).

Description and morphology: Perennial small-medium shrub (height up to 120 cm), strongly branched at base. Pivotal root system to depth 5–6 m. Stem: pale green, erect at lower end and strongly ramified at upper, covered with greyish simple hairs. Leaves: alternate, flat, short petioled, oblong-ovoid with entire margins, densely covered with silky hairs. Flowers: small, 3–8 assembled in clusters in a dense spike; monoecious: male flower with tetra-metamerous perianth and 4 stamens; female: without perianth; ovary superior. Pollen grains 3-celled. Pollen fertility: 74–85%. Growth cycle begins in middle April.

Reproduction: Sexual and vegetative. Typical anemophilous plant, but geitonogamy is also admitted. Heterocarpous. Flowering: July–August. Fruit maturation: September– October. Fruit: monospermous, lyzicarpous accreted at base with 2 bract bases, long woolly (7–8 mm). Seed: vertical, orbicular-ovoid, small (2.7 mm length, 1.6 mm wide), black, glabrous. Embryo large, spiralled, chlorophytic, surrounded by perisperm. Dormancy B1 type. Seed yield 0.05–0.38 t/ha. Viable seeds: 84–91%. Laboratory germination: 20–80%; field germination: 14–25%. Stratification of seeds (5–16 °C) for 1.5–2 months is effective. Seed longevity 3 years.

Pastoral importance: Extensively used for the creation and/or improvement of rangeland in Karnabchol steppe, foothill semi-arid regions and sandy deserts. Rough forage; good for cattle and horses all year round. Annual summer shoots and leaves well grazed. Source of minerals for cattle. Productivity on natural pastures of sandy Kyzylkum pastures around 0.03–2.0 t/ha. Also used as fuelwood.

Fodder value: Green stems and leaves during flowering contain (% DM): crude protein 16; crude fat 2.7; crude cellulose 34. Fodder value about 38 FU and 9.1 kg digestible protein/ 100 kg DM.

Habitat: Psammo-xerophyte (facultative psammophyte or halophyte). Occurs on sands, saltmarshes, gravelly-stony desert, clay slopes, foothills, and also on dry river beds and mountain river banks.

Distribution: Middle Asia (Aral and Caspian regions, Balkash, Kyzylkum, Syr-Darya), Tien Shan, Pamir mountains, western Mongolia, Afghanistan and China.