Vitex negundo (PROSEA)

From PlantUse English
Jump to: navigation, search
Logo PROSEA.png
Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

1, flowering twig; 2, flower; 3, opened corolla; 4, calyx and style; 5, fruit (Achmad Satiri Nurhaman)

Vitex negundo L.

Protologue: Sp. pl. 2: 638 ("938"; 1753).


  • Vitex incisa Lamk (1786),
  • Vitex paniculata Lamk (1786),
  • Vitex leucoxylon Blanco (1837).

Vernacular names

  • Five-leaved chaste tree, horseshoe vitex (En)
  • Indonesia: ai tuban (Ambon), lagundi laut laki-laki (Malay, Moluccas)
  • Malaysia: lagundi, lemuning, lenggundi (Peninsular)
  • Papua New Guinea: paparau (Kurtachi, Bougainville)
  • Philippines: lagundi (Filipino), dangla (Iloko)
  • Cambodia: trasiet
  • Thailand: khon thee khamoa (central), ku-no-kaa-mo (Malay, Pattani), kuuning (Malay, Narathiwat)
  • Vietnam: ngũ trảo.


Eastern Africa and Madagascar to Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Burma (Myanmar), Indo-China, China, Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, throughout the Malesian region, east to the Palau Islands, the Caroline Islands and the Mariana Islands. V. negundo is widely cultivated in Europe, Asia, North America and the West Indies, and has a tendency to escape and naturalize.


Roots and leaves are applied in various manners as an anodyne, bitter tonic, expectorant and diuretic. As a febrifuge, the leaves can be employed as a poultice or in decoction. A decoction of the leaves is applied to wounds and ulcers, for aromatic baths, and internally as galactagogue, emmenagogue, antigastralgic, and against flatulence. In the Philippines the seeds are boiled in water and eaten, or the water is taken internally, to prevent the spread of toxins from poisonous bites of animals. Syrup, tablets and capsules prepared from leaves and flowering tops are given for coughs, colds, fever and asthma. In Papua New Guinea, sap from crushed heated leaves is diluted with water to treat coughs and sore throat. In India, the flowers are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, cholera and liver disorders, apparently for their astringent properties. V. negundo is often planted as a hedge or for ornamental purposes. The twigs are used for wattle-work and rough baskets.


  • A deciduous shrub or small tree up to 8 m tall, bark surface slightly rough, peeling off in papery flakes, pale reddish-brown.
  • Leaflets 3-5, narrowly elliptical to ovate-lanceolate, minutely puberulous or glabrous above, densely tomentose or puberulent below, median leaflet 5-15 cm × 1-4 cm, with 2-12(-18) pairs of lateral veins, median leaflet on a 1-2.5 cm long petiolule, lateral ones sometimes subsessile.
  • Cymes arranged in panicles which are terminal and axillary in the upper leaf axils.
  • Calyx 1-2 mm long, shortly 5-toothed, corolla blue-violet, villous inside.
  • Fruit globose to broadly ovoid, 3-6 mm long, purple or black when mature.

V. negundo is very variable and many varieties and formae have been distinguished. It is often found gregariously in humid places or along watercourses, in waste places, thickets and mixed open forest, up to 1700 m altitude.

Selected sources

  • [35] Aiyanathan, K.E.A. & Narayanasamy, P., 1988. Effect of antiviral principles on rice tungro virus infection. Indian Journal of Virology 4(1-2): 97-99.
  • [84] Avadhoot, Y. & Rana, A.C., 1991. Hepatoprotective effect of Vitex negundo against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Archives of Pharmacological Research 14(1): 96-98.
  • [97] Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink Jr, R.C., 1963-1968. Flora of Java. 3 volumes. Noordhoff, Groningen, the Netherlands. Vol. 1 (1963) 647 pp., Vol. 2 (1965) 641 pp., Vol. 3 (1968) 761 pp.
  • [100] Badola, H.K. & Badoni, A.K., 1990. Effect of Stik and GA3 on vegetative propagation in stem-cuttings of Vitex negundo Linn. during winter. Indian Forester 116(12): 980-983.
  • [110] Balboa, J.G. & Lim-Sylianco, C.Y., 1995. Effect of some medicinal plants on skin tumor promotion. Philippine Journal of Science 124(2): 203-207.
  • [145] Bhargava, S.K., 1989. Antiandrogenic effects of a flavonoid-rich fraction of Vitex negundo seeds: a histological and biochemical study in dogs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 27(3): 327-340.
  • [190] Brown, W.H., 1951-1957. Useful plants of the Philippines. Reprint of the 1941-1943 edition. 3 volumes. Technical Bulletin 10. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Bureau of Printing, Manila, the Philippines. Vol. 1 (1951) 590 pp., Vol. 2 (1954) 513 pp., Vol. 3 (1957) 507 pp.
  • [202] Burkill, I.H., 1966. A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula. Revised reprint. 2 volumes. Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Vol. 1 (A-H) pp. 1-1240. Vol. 2 (I-Z) pp. 1241-2444.
  • [206] Byragi Reddy, T. & Subba Reddi, C., 1994. Pollination ecology of Vitex negundo (Verbenaceae). Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, Part B, Biological Sciences 60: 57-66.
  • [213] Cardenas, L.B. & Quimado, M.O., 1986. Tissue culture of medicinal plants: an investment for the future. Research at Los Baños (Philippines) 5(2): 14-15.
  • [284] Corner, E.J.H., 1988. Wayside trees of Malaya. 3rd Edition. 2 volumes. The Malayan Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 774 pp.
  • [287] Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1948-1976. The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials & industrial products. 11 volumes. Publications and Information Directorate, New Delhi, India.
  • [307] Damayanti, M., Susheela, K. & Sharma, G. J., 1996. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa. Cytobios 86(346): 155-165.
  • [312] Dans, L., 1988. Herbal medicine and drug substitution: report on lagundi, yerba buena and akapulko. Vol. 2, University of the Philippines at Manila (UPM), Manila, Philippines. 96 pp.
  • [325] Dayrit, F.M., Lapid, M.R.G., Cagampang, J.V. & Lagurin, L.G., 1987. Phytochemical studies on the leaves of Vitex negundo, L. ('lagundi'). I. Investigations of the bronchial relaxing constituents. Philippine Journal of Science 116(4): 403-410.
  • [327] de Guzman, E.D., Umali, R.M. & Sotalbo, E.D., 1986. Guide to the Philippine flora and fauna. Vol. 3: Dipterocarps, non-dipterocarps. Natural Resources Management Centre, Ministry of Natural Resources, Quezon City & University of the Philippines, Los Baños, the Philippines. 414 pp.
  • [332] de Padua, L.S., Lugod, G.C. & Pancho, J.V., 1977-1983. Handbook on Philippine medicinal plants. 4 volumes. Documentation and Information Section, Office of the Director of Research, University of the Philippines at Los Baños, the Philippines.
  • [358] Divinagracia, G.G. & Ros, L.B., 1985. Note: diseases of selected medicinal plants in the Philippines. Philippine Agriculturist 68(2): 297-308.
  • [415] Florentino, C., Ocampo, P.P. & Ocampo, V.R., 1993. Effects of lagundi (Vitex negundo L.) crude extracts on some reproductive parameters of adult male albino rats. In: Proceedings of the twenty-fourth Annual Scientific Meeting of the Pest Management Council of the Philippines. College, Laguna, the Philippines. p. 43.
  • [567] Hebbalkar, D.S., Hebbalkar, G.D., Sharma, R.N., Joshi, V.S. & Bhat, V.S., 1992. Mosquito repellent activity of oils from Vitex negundo Linn. leaves. Indian Journal of Medical Research (95): 200-203.
  • [580] Heyne, K., 1950. De nuttige planten van Indonesië [The useful plants of Indonesia]. 3rd Edition. 2 volumes. W. van Hoeve, 's-Gravenhage, the Netherlands/Bandung, Indonesia. 1660 + CCXLI pp.
  • [597] Holdsworth, D.K., 1977. Medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea. Technical Paper No 175. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 123 pp.
  • [709] Kashyap, N.P., Bhagat, R.M., Sharma, D.C. & Suri, S.M., 1992. Efficacy of some useful plant leaves for the control of potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella Zell. in stores. Journal of Entomological Research 16(3): 223-227.
  • [809] Lam, H.J., 1919. The Verbenaceae of the Malayan Archipelago. M. de Waal, Groningen, the Netherlands. 370 pp.
  • [810] Lam, H.J. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C., 1921. Revision of the Verbenaceae of the Dutch East-Indies and surrounding countries. Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de Buitenzorg, Série III, 3: 1-116.
  • [890] Makwana, H.G., Ravishankar, B., Shukla, V.J., Nair, R.B., Vijayan, N.P., Sasikala, C.K., Saraswathy, V.N. & Bhatt, S.V., 1994. General pharmacology of Vitex leucoxylon Linn. leaves. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 38(2): 95-100.
  • [894] Manalo, J.B., 1982. A study of lagundi oil: the essential oil from Vitex negundo Linn. growing in the Philippines. Philippine Journal of Science 111(3-4): 79-97.
  • [921] Matthew, K.M., 1981-1988. The flora of the Tamilnadu Carnatic. 4 volumes. The Rapinat Herbarium, St. Joseph's College, Tiruchirapalli, India.
  • [942] Mia, M.D., Kabir, K.H. & Ahmed, A., 1985. Efficacy of some indigenous plant materials as repellents to Sitophilus oryzae on stored maize. Bangladesh Journal of Agriculture 10(3): 55-58.
  • [943] Miah, M.R.U., Rahman, N.H., Sufia Begum, Islam, B.N. & Sutradhar, G.N.C., 1996. Application of leaf powders and oils as a protectant of lentil seeds against Callosobruchus chinensis Linn. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 31(3): 137-142.
  • [970] Moldenke, H.N., 1957. Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. VII. Phytologia 5(10): 465-507.
  • [971] Moldenke, H.N., 1957. Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. VIII. Phytologia 6(1): 13-64.
  • [972] Moldenke, H.N. & Moldenke, A.L., 1983. Verbenaceae. In: Dassanayake, M.D. & Fosberg, F.R. (Editors): A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Vol. 4. Amerind Publishing Co., New Delhi, India. pp. 196-487.
  • [1035] Nguyen Van Duong, 1993. Medicinal plants of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Mekong Printing, Santa Ana, California, United States. 528 pp.
  • [1126] Perry, L.M., 1980. Medicinal plants of East and Southeast Asia. Attributed properties and uses. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States & London, United Kingdom. 620 pp.
  • [1128] Pételot, A., 1952-1954. Les plantes médicinales du Cambodge, du Laos et du Vietnam [The medicinal plants of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam]. 4 volumes. Centre National de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques, Saigon, Vietnam.
  • [1171] Pushpalatha, E. & Muthukrishnan, J., 1995. Larvicidal activity of a few plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. Indian Journal of Malariology 32(1): 14-23.
  • [1176] Quintana, E.G., Saludez, J.D., Batoon, M.P. & Generalao, M.L., 1982. Agricultural production of selected medicinal plants: propagation to postharvest handling. PCARRD [Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry, and Natural Resources Research and Development] Monitor 10(4): 8-10.
  • [1178] Quisumbing, E., 1978. Medicinal plants of the Philippines. Katha Publishing Co., Quezon City, the Philippines. 1262 pp.
  • [1195] Rajeswari, E. & Mariappan, V., 1992. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro growth of rice blast (Bl) pathogen Pyricularia oryzae. International Rice Research Newsletter 17(6): 24.
  • [1287] Saralamp, P., Temsiririrkkul, R., Chuakul, W., Riewpaiboon, A., Prathanturarug, S., Suthisisang, C. & Pongcharoensuk, P. (Editors), 1996. Medicinal plants in the Siri Ruckhachati Garden. 2nd Edition. Siambooks and Publications Co., Bangkok, Thailand. 263 pp.
  • [1307] Selvaraj, C. & Narayanasamy, P., 1991. Effect of plant extracts in controlling rice tungro. International Rice Research Newsletter 16(2): 21-22.
  • [1380] Smitinand, T., 1980. Thai plant names. Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand. 379 pp.
  • [1478] Troup, R.S., 1921. Silviculture of Indian trees. 3 volumes. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
  • [1524] Verma, S.C. & Misra, P.N., 1989. Biomass and energy production in coppice stands of Vitex negundo L. in high density plantations on marginal lands. Biomass 19(3): 189-194.
  • [1525] Vidal, J., 1962. Noms vernaculaires de plantes en usage au Laos [Vernacular names of plants used in Laos]. Ecole française d'Extrême-Orient, Paris, France. 197 pp.
  • [1564] Whitmore, T.C. & Ng, F.S.P. (Editors), 1972-1989. Tree flora of Malaya. A manual for foresters. 2nd Edition. 4 volumes. Malayan Forest Records No 26. Longman Malaysia Sdn. Berhad, Kuala Lumpur & Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.

Main genus page


  • E.P. Capareda