Mari Mut, Aublet’s generic names
© 2018 edicionesdigitales.info. This publication may be copied and distributed freely for academic, non-profit purposes. Last updated: April 30, 2018.
During the preparation of Etimología de los géneros de plantas en Puerto Rico (Mari Mut, 2016) Aublet's generic names caught my attention due to their relationship with the language of Amerindians and the fact that the etymology of so many remains unknown. There’s a general impression that all these names were based on the native names for the plants (e.g., Théis, 1810; Wittstein, 1856; Quattrocchi, 2000), but the discovery that Remirea was probably named after a locality (Mari Mut, 2017a) and Delprete's (2015) suggestion of etymologies for three Rubiacean genera (Coussarea, Nacibea and Tocoyena) suggested that a another look at these names could lead to the discovery of additional etymologies.
Jean Baptiste Christophore (or Christian) Fusée Aublet was born in Salon de Provence, France, in early November 1770. He studied pharmacy and botany at Montpellier under François Boissier de Sauvage de Lacroix and botany at the Jardin du Roy under Bernard de Jussieu. From 1752 to 1762 Aublet worked in Mauritius (Ile de France), where he collected plants and participated in the foundation of the island’s main botanical garden. After a short stay in Paris, he accepted the position of “King's botanist and apothecary” in Cayenne, French Guiana. From July 1762 to July 1764, he explored coastal areas, canoed and hiked into the forest, collected thousands of plants and met native tribes. After a year in Haiti, where he also collected plants, Aublet reached Paris in 1765. With help from Jussieu, he spent the next nine years studying his collections and preparing his only botanical publication: Histoire des plantes de la Guiane Francoise, published in 1775 in London. Three years later Aublet died in Paris, aged 58. The above profile, fittingly held by a native, is from the frontispiece of his book. More biographical information and an itinerary of Aublet's travels is given by Delprete (2015).
Histoire des plantes consists of four tomes or volumes, the first two contain an autobiographical introduction, the plant descriptions (in Latin and French), and ten essays or memories on various topics; the other two contain the plant illustrations. By my count, Aublet proposed 207 new generic names. He adopted the sexual system of classification, but openly disregarded Linnaeus’ suggestion to modify or substitute “barbarous names” for names of Greek or Latin origin… the large majority of Aublet’s names, generic and specific, are the native names for the plants or slight alterations.
Aublet commented frequently on the uses given to plants by the natives and has thus been considered a founding father of ethnobotany in the Neotropics (Plotkin et al., 1991, cited in http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/projects/lp/biblio-details/?irn=169065 ). He was also a pioneer abolitionist and expressed his views against slavery in Observations Sur les Négres Esclaves (seventh memory of volume 2); for his life-long stand against slavery, Aublet has been called the first secular abolitionist (Cook, 1940; Dover, 1956).
The first two volumes of Histoire des plantes were examined looking for information relevant to the etymology of each generic name. Searches were then conducted in the web, in printed and digital literature in my library, and in maps found online. The excellent map reproduced by Delprete (2015), published in 1729 and thus very likely available to Aublet, and another map found on the web are reproduced at the end of this work. The generic names are arranged below in three groups: names for which Aublet provided the etymology, names for which others authors have proposed an etymology or one can be reasonably deducted, and names whose etymology remains unknown.
Aublet provided the etymology for the following 111 generic names. Although he never explicitly gave the meaning of any name, these are clearly derived from names for the plant, its fruit, wood or another characteristic; one is named after a locality and one after a person. Seventy-four names originate with the Galibis or mainland Caribs, today frequently called Kali'na because it is how they call themselves. The Galibis lived (and still live) not far inland and were thus frequently encountered by Aublet. Twenty-one names came from the Garipons, a tribe which came to French Guiana from a Portuguese colony near the mouth of the Amazon, in the state of Pará. Two names were provided by the Nouragues and one by the Coussaris, tribes that lived inland from Cayenne. Three names are of Creole origin. Aublet’s text is in Latin and French, in the former Carib is used as a general term, the tribe’s name appears in the latter.
- Aberemoa Annonaceae- from aberemou, Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Ablania Elaeocarpaceae- from goulougou-ablani, Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Abuta Menispermaceae- from aboutoua or abutua, Garipon name for A. amara.
- Acioa Chrysobalanaceae- from acioua, Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Aiouea Lauraceae- from aiouvé. Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Amaioua Rubiaceae- Garipon name for A. guianensis.
- Amanoa Phyllanthaceae- from amanuou, Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Ambelania Apocynaceae- from ambelani, one of two Galibi names for A. acida, the other being paraveris.
- Apalatoa Fabaceae- from apalatoua, Galibi name for A. spicata.
- Arouna Fabaceae- Galibi name for A. guianensis.
- Bagassa Moraceae- Galibi name for B. guianensis.
- Bocoa Fabaceae- from bois boco, name given to the tree by the inhabitants of Caux.
- Caraipa Calophyllaceae- from caraipé, Garipon name for C. angustifolia.
- Carapa Meliaceae- Galibi name for C. guianensis. The Garipons called it y-andiroba, being andiroba the common name for the tree and its wood.
- Carapichea Rubiaceae- from carapiche, Garipon name for C. guianensis.
- Catinga Myrtaceae- from iva-catinga, Garipon name for C. moschata.
- Conami Phyllanthaceae- from conami para, one of the Creole names for C. brasiliensis in Brazil (near Pará), the other being amazone. This plant is from Brazil, so the specimens must have been given to Aublet or were present in France.
- Conceveiba Euphorbiaceae- from conceveibo, Galibi name for C. guianensis.
- Conohoria Violaceae- from conohorié, Galibi name for C. flavescens.
- Coublandia Fabaceae- for a locality named Descoublandiere, which belonged to Claude Gabriel d’Escoubland de la Rougerie, French military officer and landowner near whose property the plant was found. See http://laguyane.free.fr/villes/Les%20origines%20des%20villes.htm. Lotte Burkardt kindly provided Descoubland's complete name.
- Couepia Chrysobalanaceae- from couepi, Galibi name for C. guianensis.
- Couma Apocynaceae- Galibi name for C. guianensis.
- Coumarouna Fabaceae- from coumarou, Galibi and Garipon name for C. odorata.
- Coupoui Rubiaceae- from coupoui-rana, Garipon name for C. aquatica.
- Couratari Lecythidaceae- name given to the tree by les Negres, who also call it balata blanc and sometimes maou. Couratari is probably of native origin.
- Courimari Elaeocarpaceae- Nourague name for C. guianensis.
- Couroupita Lecythidaceae- from couroupitoutoumou, name given to the tree by quelques nations sauvages de la Guiane.
- Coussapoa Urticaceae- from coussapoui, Galibi name for C. latifolia.
- Coutoubea Gentianaceae- Galibi name for C. spicata and C. ramosa.
- Deguelia Fabaceae- from assa-ha pagara undeguélé, Galibi name for D. scandens.
- Enourea Sapindaceae- from eymara enourou, Galibi name for E. capreolata.
- Eperua Fabaceae- from eperu, Galibi name for the fruit of E. falcata; the name for the tree is vovapa-tabaca. Eperu means saber (a type of sword), possibly referring to the shape of the pod and reflecting contact with europeans.
- Evea Rubiaceae- from evé, Galibi name for E. guianensis.
- Ferolia Moraceae- for bois de férole, Creole name for the tree’s wood, derived from the name of an old governor of Cayenne who was the first to introduce it to commerce. Lotte Burkhardt (pers. comm.) has identified him as Pierre-Eléonore de La Ville de Férolles.
- Goupia Goupiaceae- from goupi, Galibi name for G. glabra.
- Hevea Euphorbiaceae- from hévé, name given to the tree by the inhabitants of Esmeraldas province northwest of Quito. The Maïnas of Ecuador call it caoutchouc and the Garipons call it siringa.
- Heymassoli Ximeniaceae- Galibi name for H. spinosa.
- Houmiri Humiriaceae- Garipon name for H. balsamifera. The accepted spelling for this name is Humiria.
- Icacorea Primulaceae- from icacore-catinga, Garipon name for I. guianensis.
- Ivira Malvaceae- Garipon name for I. pruriens.
- Licaria Lauraceae- from licari kanali, Galibi name for L. guianensis.
- Mabea Euphorbiaceae- from piriri mabé, Galibi name for M. piriri.
- Macahanea Celastraceae- from macaca-hana, Garipon name for M. guianensis.
- Macoucoua Aquifoliaceae- from macoucou, Galibi name for M. guianensis.
- Manabea Lamiaceae- from manabo, Galibi name for M. laevis.
- Managa Celastraceae- Galibi name for M. guianensis.
- Mapouria Rubiaceae- from maypouri-crabi, Galibi name for M. guianensis.
- Maripa Convolvulaceae- Galibi name for M. scandens. The same name was also used for a species of palm.
- Matayba Sapindaceae- from matabaiba, Galibi name for a variety of M. guianensis; names for the other variety are touaou and atouaou.
- Minquartia Olacaceae- from minquar, Creole name for M. guianensis.
- Montira Loganiaceae- for M. de Monti, counsellor at the Superior Council of Cayenne, who helped the author during his investigations. The plant used to describe the genus was found in his cotton field. See also Théis (1810: 310).
- Moronobea Clusiaceae- from moronobo, one of the Galibi names for M. coccinea, the other being coronobo.
- Mourera Podostemaceae- from mourerou, Galibi name for M. fluviatilis.
- Mouriri Melastomataceae- from mouririchira, Galibi name for M. guianensis.
- Mouroucoa Convolvulaceae- from mouroucou-yarana, Garipon name for M. violacea.
- Moutabea Polygalaceae- from aimoutabou (also spelled aymoutabou), Galibi name for M. guianensis.
- Moutouchi Fabaceae- from moutouchi; Galibi, Garipon and Creole name for M. suberosa.
- Napimoga Salicaceae- from napimogal, Galibi name for N. guianensis.
- Nonatelia Rubiaceae- from nonoateli, Galibi name for N. officinalis.
- Ouratea Ochnaceae- from oura-ara, Galibi name for O. guianensis.
- Ourouparia Rubiaceae- from y-ourou-pari (also spelled yourou-pari), Garipon name for O. guianensis.
- Outea Fabaceae- from ioutay, Garipon name for O. guianensis.
- Pacouria Apocynaceae- from pacouri-rana, Garipon name for P. guianensis.
- Paloue Fabaceae- Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Paralea Ebenaceae- from parala, Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Parinari Chrysobalanaceae- Garipon name for P. montana.
- Patima Rubiaceae- from patima-rana, Carib name for P. guianensis. The native tribe was not specified.
- Paypayrola Violaceae- Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Pekea Caryocaraceae- Galibi and Nourague name for P. butirosa.
- Pirigara Lecythidaceae- from pirigamepé, Galibi name for P. tetrapetala and P. hexapetala, the first species is also called caripa.
- Pitumba Salicaceae- from pitumba-rana, Garipon name for P. guianensis.
- Poraqueiba Metteniusaceae- Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Posoqueria Rubiaceae- from aymara-posoqueri, Galibi name for P. longiflora.
- Pourouma Urticaceae- Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Pouteria Sapotaceae- from pouroma-pouteri, Galibi name for P. guianensis.
- Qualea Vochysiaceae- from qualé, Galibi name for Q. caerulea.
- Quapoya Clusiaceae- from quapoy, Galibi name for Q. scandens.
- Quebitea Piperaceae- from daquejoabite, name for this plant whose juice is used againt snake bites. The native tribe was not specified.
- Quiina Ochnaceae- from guiina-rana or quiina-rana, Garipon name for Q. guianensis
- Ropourea Ebenaceae- from aroupourou, Coussari name for R. guianensis.
- Rouhamon Loganiaceae- from rouhahamon, Galibi name for R. guianensis.
- Sabicea Rubiaceae- from sabisabi, Galibi name for S. aspera.
- Sagonea Hydroleaceae- from sagoun-sagou, Galibi name for S. palustris.
- Saouari Caryocaraceae- name given to S. glabra by the people of the country and the inhabitants of Cayenne.
- Simarouba Simaroubaceae- Galibi name for S. amara.
- Simira Rubiaceae- Galibi name for S. tinctoria.
- Singana Fabaceae- from singan singa, Nourague name for S. guianensis.
- Tachia Gentianaceae- from tachi, Galibi name for ant nests, because hollow stems and branches of the plant are occupied by ants.
- Tachibota Chrysobalanaceae- from umbetachibote, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Tachigali Fabaceae- Galibi name for T. paniculata.
- Tanibouca Combretaceae- Garipon name for T. guianensis, called tonibouca by the Galibis.
- Tapirira Anacardiaceae- from tapiriri, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Tapogomea Rubiaceae- from tapogomo, Galibi name for T. tomentosa.
- Taralea Fabaceae- from tarala, Galibi name for T. oppositifolia.
- Tariri Simaroubaceae- Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Thoa Gnetaceae- Galibi name for T. urens.
- Tococa Melastomataceae- from tococo, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Tontelea Celastraceae- from ravoua-tontelle, Galibi name for T. scandens.
- Touchiroa Fabaceae- from moutouchiraou, Galibi name for T. aromatica.
- Toulicia Sapindaceae- from toulici, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Tounatea Fabaceae- from tounou, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Touroulia Ochnaceae- Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Tovomita Clusiaceae- from votomite, Galibi name for T. guianensis.
- Virola Myristicaceae- one of the Galibi names for V. sebifera, the other being dayapa.
- Vochy Vochysiaceae- Galibi name for V. guianensis. Validly spelled Vochysia.
- Votomita Melastomataceae- from votomit, Galibi name for V. guianensis.
- Vouacapoua Fabaceae- Galibi name for V. americana, also spelled voicapou.
- Vouapa Fabaceae- Galibi name for V. bifolia. It is also the Galibi name for Parivoa grandiflora and P. tomentosa.
- Vouarana Sapindaceae- Carib name for V. guinanensis. The native tribe was not specified.
- Voyara Capparaceae- from vouyara-ovayara-iouva-ayssou, Garipon name for V. montana.
- Voyria Gentianaceae- Garipon name for V. rosea.
Below are 25 names for which etymologies have been suggested and 7 names for which one is suggested herein.
- Aniba Lauraceae- Quattrocchi (1: 144) indicates from the Tupi-Guarani anhuyba for a species of sassafras. See also http://www.botanicus.org/primeocr/mbgserv14/botanicus3/b12002070/31753002771258/31753002771258_0216.txt
- Apeiba Malvaceae- Quattrocchi (1: 69) indicates from a native name in Guiana, apé “bark”. Aublet (1: 539) describes the tree’s bark and mentions that it is suited to make rope.
- Baillieria Asteraceae- perhaps for Johann Ritter von Baillou (1654-1758), a French-Dutch-Italian naturalist known in France as Jean Chevallier de Baillou and Jean Baillieul. Another possibility is a resident of French Guiana, as in Bertiera and Montira, but no one with a similar name is mentioned in the text. Suggested herein.
- Bertiera Rubiaceae- probably for Madame Bertier or the Bertier family, which helped the author during his stay in French Guiana; Madame Bertier is mentioned on volume 1 (p. 447, 560) as owner of an estate or plantation (habitation) near which plants were collected, M. Bertier is mentioned on Vol. 2 (Suppl.): 32. Source: Tableau du règne végétal 2: 573. 1799 (spelled Berthiera). See also Delprete (2015: 599).
- Calinea Dilleniaceae- possibly dedicated to the Kali’na (Galina in French), name used by the Caribs to refer to themselves. Suggested herein.
- Cassipourea Rhizophoraceae- possibly after the Cassipour river in Brazil, near the border with French Guiana, or for a tribe of that name living in Brazil and French Guiana. Suggested herein.
- Crenea Lythraceae- Quattrocchi (1: 637) indicates from Greek krene (well, spring, fountain, source) because the genus loves salt water.
- Coussarea Rubiaceae- probably for the Kusari (Coussari) tribe of French Guiana and Brazil, or perhaps after a small forest deer of that name. Source: Delprete (2015: 602).
- Galipea Rutaceae- possibly for the Garipon, a tribe that arrived in French Guiana from Brazil. Source: Wittstein (1856: 379). Although Aublet uses Garipons elsewhere, under this name he uses Galipons.
- Icica Burseraceae- Wittstein (p. 471) states that the word denotes "resin" and indicates the resin richness of the plant. Aublet gives arouaou as the Carib name for the plant, adding that the negroes call it encens (incense, possibly referring to the burning of resin as incense).
- Licania Chrysobalanaceae- Théis (p. 267) suggests that this is an anagram of the Carib name caligni (Aublet 1: 119, 120).
- Mahurea Calophyllaceae- possibly after the Mahoury river, territory or mountains, located west of Cayenne and which Aublet likely explored (see Fig. 2). Suggested herein.
- Matourea Plantaginaceae- possibly after an area called Matoury, today a commune located south of Cayenne, an area which Aublet likely explored. Suggested herein.
- Mayaca Mayacaceae- probably for the Galibi chief Maiac, Capitaine Maiac (Vol. 2 (Suppl.): 105) who helped Aublet understand Galibi society. On page 106 he is called Le Capitaine Mayac. Suggested herein.
- Nacibea Rubiaceae- probably for the locality of Nancibo, a village near Nancibo Creek, and not far from the town of Roura… or to Saut Nacibo, of the Sinnamary River, now inundated by the Petit-Saur Dam. Source: Delprete (2015: 608).
- Norantea Marcgraviaceae- possibly and anagram of conoro-antegri, the Carib name for the tree. Source: Théis (1810: 325).
- Ocotea Lauraceae- Quattrocchi (3: 1853) suggests that it is a latinization ajou-houha, the Garipon name for O. guianensis (Vol. 2: 781, 783).
- Palicourea Rubiaceae- probably for the Palikur (Palicour) tribe of French Guiana and Brazil. Source: Quattrocchi 3: 1937. See also Delprete (2015: 611). The map provided by Delprete shows a wide area in Brazil labelled Palicour and below ammis des Francois. The Palikur still live in Brazil and French Guiana.
- Pariana Poaceae- according to Clifford and Bostock (2007: 220) -ana indicates a connection and the name honors the Paris, an Amerindian tribe living in Amazonia. A tribe called Paria lives in Venezuela.
- Perebea Moraceae- possibly an anagram of vévé éperou, one of the Galibi names for the tree, the other being abérémou. Suggested herein.
- Potalia Gentianaceae- from Greek poton (drink, drinking water), because the leaves and green stems are used to prepare a very bitter and regurgitative herbal tea. Source: Quattrocchi (3: 2155). The drink is mentioned by Aublet (1: 396) without reference to the generic name.
- Rapanea Primulaceae- Quattrocchi (4: 2269) indicates that it derives from rapana, a common name used in tropical America.
- Raputia Rutaceae- Théis (p. 395) indicates after the Orapu forest in Guiana, where the bush was found.
- Remirea Cyperaceae- probably for the parish (paroisse) of Remire, then a small village near the seashore close to Cayenne (see Fig. 2). Source: Mari Mutt (2017a: 90). The only species of the genus, R. maritima, is cosmopolitan on sandy beaches.
- Rinorea Violaceae- Quattrocchi (4: 2320) indicates as a possibility from the Greek rhinos (nose) and oros (hill), or referring to the anthers.
- Rourea Connaraceae- possibly for the parish or town of Roura (Aroura), located on the Oyak River, where the plant was found. Source: Mari Mut (2017b: 97).
- Simaba Simaroubaceae- Quattrocchi (4: 2484) states that it is the native name in Guiana for S. multiflora A. Juss. 1825, but the species is represented only by figures in Jussieu’s plate 27 and Aublet provided no indication of the name source.
- Talisia Sapindaceae- Quattrocchi (4: 2627) indicates that it is a native name in Guiana, although Aublet gives toulichi as the Carib name; he also suggests from the Greek thaleo (to grow green, flourish).
- Tocoyena Rubiaceae- probably for the Tokoyene (Tocoyen, Tocoienne) tribe of French Guiana. Source: Delprete (2015: 621). In the map provided by Delprete, the Tocoienne are also in Brazil.
- Trigonia Trigoniaceae- from Greek tri (three) and gonia (angle), referring to the three-angled fruit (capsule). Source: Théis (1810: 465).
- Vantanea Humiriaceae- Théis (p. 478) indicates from iouantan, the Nourague name for the plant (1: 572, 573).
- Xiphidium Haemodoraceae- probably from Greek xiphos (sword) and -ideum (similar) or -idium (small), referring to the shape of the leaves. Source: Théis (1810: 489). See also Wittstein (1856: 941).
No etymology has been proposed for the following 64 names, other than saying they are the Guianan names for the plants or the names used by Aublet for the plants. Detailed maps of Cayenne and other areas explored by Aublet could yield insight on the etymology of some of these names, as could perhaps do someone familiar with the language of the Kali’na- for a dictionary see Courtz (2008).
- Acouroa Fabaceae
- Aruba Simaroubaceae
- Bacopa Plantaginaceae
- Banara Salicaceae
- Bassovia Solanaceae
- Cabomba Cabombaceae
- Cacoucia Combretaceae
- Ciponima Symplocaceae
- Cipura Iridaceae
- Conobea Plantaginaceae
- Coutarea Rubiaceae
- Faramea Rubiaceae
- Guapira Nyctaginaceae
- Iroucana Salicaceae
- Macoubea Apocynaceae
- Malanea Rubiaceae
- Mapania Cyperaceae
- Maprounea Euphorbiaceae
- Maquira Moraceae
- Matelea Apocynaceae
- Mayepea Oleaceae
- Mayna Achariaceae
- Meborea Phyllanthaceae
- Moquilea Chrysobalanaceae
- Orelia Apocynaceae
- Pachira Malvaceae
- Pacourina Asteraceae
- Pagamea Rubiaceae
- Pamea Combretaceae
- Parivoa Fabaceae
- Passoura Violaceae
- Patabea Rubiaceae
- Perama Rubiacee
- Piparea Salicaceae
- Piratinera Moraceae
- Piripea Orobanchaceae
- Piriqueta Passifloraceae
- Possira Fabaceae
- Quararibea Malvaceae
- Racaria Sapindaceae
- Racoubea Salicaceae
- Rapatea Rapateaceae,
- Riana Violaceae
- Ronabea Rubiaceae
- Roupala Proteaceae
- Senapea Passifloraceae
- Sipanea Rubiaceae
- Siparuna Siparunaceae
- Soramia Dilleniaceae
- Souroubea Marcgraviaceae
- Taligalea Lamiaceae
- Tamonea Verbenaceae
- Tampoa Celastraceae
- Taonabo Pentaphylacaceae
- Tapura Dichapetalaceae
- Tibouchina Melastomataceae
- Ticorea Rutaceae
- Tigarea Dilleniaceae
- Tonina Eriocaulaceae
- Tontanea Rubiaceae
- Topobea Melastomataceae
- Vatairea Fabaceae
- Vouay Arecaceae
- Waria Annonaceae
- Clifford, H. T. and P. D. Bostock. 2007. Etymological Dictionary of Grasses. Springer. 319 pp.
- Cook, O. F. 1940. Aublet the botanist: a pioneer against slavery, with a memorial genus of palms. Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 30(7): 294-299.
- Courtz, H. 2008. A Carib grammar and dictionary. Magoria Books, Toronto. 511 pp. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/handle/1887/12578/Thesis.pdf
- Dover, C. 1956. Aublet: The First Secular Abolitionist. Phylon 17(3): 291-295.
- Delprete, P. G. 2015. Typification and etymology of Aublet’s Rubiaceae names. Taxon 64(3): 595-624.
- Mari Mut, J. A. 2016. Etimología de los géneros de plantas en Puerto Rico. Primera edición. Ediciones Digitales. pdf
- Mari Mut, J. A. 2017a. Etimología de los geéneros de plantas en Puerto Rico. Segunda edición. Ediciones Digitales. pdf
- Mari Mut, J. A. 2017b. Etimología de los géneros de plantas fanerógamas en La Española. Ediciones Digitales. pdf
- Plotkin, M. J., B. M. Boom and M. Allison. 1991. The ethnobotany of Aublet's Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise (1775). Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 35: 1-108.
- Quattrocchi, H. 2000. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. CRC Press, 2895 pp.
- Théis, A. 1810. Glossaire de botanique, ou Dictionnaire étymologique de tous les noms et termes relatifs a cette science. Gabriel Dufour et Co., 542 pp. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k641818/f3
- Wittstein, G. C. 1856. Etymologisch-botanisches Handwörterbuch. Erlangen. 952 pp. https://archive.org/details/etymologischbot00wittgoog