Frankenia-Fusanus (Sturtevant, 1919)

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Sturtevant, Notes on edible plants, 1919
Frankenia-Fusanus (Sturtevant, 1919)

Frankenia portulacaefolia Spreng.

Frankeniaceae. SEA HEATH.

St. Helena Islands. One of the few plants indigenous in the Island of St. Helena but now, J. Smith says, believed to be extinct. Balfour says the leaves were used in St. Helena as a substitute for tea.

Fraxinus excelsior Linn.

Oleaceae. ASH.

Temperate regions of the Old World. The keys of the ash were formerly pickled by steeping in salt and vinegar and were eaten as a condiment, a use to which they are still put in Siberia. The leaves are sometimes used to adulterate tea.

Fraxinus ornus Linn.


Mediterranean region and the Orient. The manna ash is indigenous and is cultivated in Sicily and Calabria. When the trees are eight or ten years old, one cut is made every day from the commencement of July to the end of September, from which a whitish, glutinous liquor exudes spontaneously and hardens into manna. Manna is collected during nine years, when the tree is exhausted and is cut down and only a shoot left, which after four or five years becomes in turn productive. Once a week the manna is collected. The yield is about 5 pounds of select and 70 pounds of assorted manna per acre. This tree is the melia of Dioscorides, the meleos of modern Greece. The seeds are imported into Egypt for culinary and medicinal use and are called bird tongues. Fraxinus excelsior Linn. furnishes a little manna in some districts of Sicily.

The manna of Scripture is supposed to be a Lichen, Parmelia esculenta, a native of Asia Minor, the, Sahara and Persia. Some believe manna to be the exudation found on the stems of Alhagi maurorum Medic., a shrubby plant which covers immense plains in Arabia and Palestine and which now furnishes a manna used in India. In Kumaun, as Madden states, the leaves and branches of Pinus excelsa Wall., become covered with a liquid exudation which hardens into a kind of manna, sweet, not turpentiny, which is eaten. Tamarisk manna is collected in India from the twigs of Tamarix articulata Ehr. and T. gallica Ehr., and is used to adulterate sugar as well as for a food by the Bedouin Arabs. Pyrus glabra Boiss., affords in Luristan a substance which, according to Hauss-knecht, is collected and is extremely like oak manna. The same traveller states that Salix fragilis Linn., and Scrophularia frigida Boiss., likewise yield in Persia saccharine exudations. A kind of manna was anciently collected from Cedrus libani Linn. Australian manna is found on the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis LabilL, E. mannifera Mudie and E. dumosa A. Cunn.; that from the second species is used as food by the natives. This latter manna is said to be an insect secretion and is called lerp. In Styria, Larix europaea DC., exudes a honeyed juice which hardens and is called manna. In Asiatic Turkey, diarbekir manna is found on the leaves of dwarf oaks. Pinus lambertiana Dougl., of southern Oregon, yields a sort of exudation used by the natives, which resembles manna.

Freycinetia banksii A. Cunn.


New Zealand. The flowers, of a sweetish taste, are eagerly eaten, by the natives of New Zealand. This plant is said by Curl to bear the best edible fruit of the country.

Freycinetia milnei Seem.

Fiji Islands. According to Milne, the fruit is eaten by the Fijians.

Fritillaria camschatcensis Ker-Gawl.


Eastern Asia. The bitter tubers, says Hooker, are copiously eaten by the Indians of Sitka and are known by the name of koch. This plant is enumerated by Dall among the useful indigenous Alaskan plants. In Kamchatka, the women collect the roots, which are used in cookery in various ways; when roasted in embers, they supply the place of bread. Captain Cook said he boiled and ate these roots as potatoes and found them wholesome and pleasant. Royle says the bulbs are eaten in the Himalayan region.

Fritillaria lanceolata Pursh.


Western North America. The roots are eaten by some Indians.

Fuchsia corymbiflora Ruiz. & Pav.

Onagrarieae. FUCHSIA.

Peru. The fruit is said by J. Smith to be wholesome and not unpalatable.

Fuchsia denticulata Ruiz. & Pav.


Peru. The acid fruits are edible.

Fuchsia racemosa Lam.


Santo Domingo. It produces edible, acid fruits.

Fusanus acuminatus R. Br.


Australia. Both the succulent outer part and kernel are edible. The seeds are eaten as almonds. Lindley says the fruit is as sweet and useful to the New Hollanders as almonds are to us.

Fusanus persicarius F. Muell.

Australia. The bark of the root of this small variety of the sandal tree is roasted by the Murray tribe of Australian natives in hot ashes and eaten. It has no taste but is very nutritious. The native name is quantong.