Difference between revisions of "Smilax"

From PlantUse English
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(4 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Genus page (seed plant)
 
{{Genus page (seed plant)
|image = Image_needed_LHB.png
+
|image = Smilax aspera, Sète 01.jpg
|legend =  
+
|legend = ''Smilax aspera'' at Sète (France)
|author =  
+
|author = L.
 
|ordre =  Liliales
 
|ordre =  Liliales
 
|famille = Smilacaceae
 
|famille = Smilacaceae
Line 9: Line 9:
 
}}
 
}}
 
For a history of sarsaparillas, see the page [[:fr:Salsepareille|Salsepareille]] (fr).
 
For a history of sarsaparillas, see the page [[:fr:Salsepareille|Salsepareille]] (fr).
 +
  
 
== Biology ==
 
== Biology ==
 +
There are about 300 species, distributed in all the continents and climates.
 +
*All species are dioecious.
 +
*Most are prickly
 +
*Most have petiolar paired tendrils
 +
*Most are climbers, some being more bushy.
 +
*Leaves are alternate, petiolate, entire, acute.
 +
*Inflorescences are simple umbels or racemes of umbels.
 +
*Fruit is a berry
 +
  
 
== Classification ==
 
== Classification ==
 +
''Smilax'' L. (1753)
  
 
== Species ==
 
== Species ==
 +
=== Species important against syphilis ===
 +
'True' sarsaparillas came from the Americas. They are :
 +
*''[[Smilax regelii]]'', Honduras sarsaparilla
 +
*''[[Smilax aristolochiifolia]]'', Mexican (or Veracruz) sarsaparilla
 +
*''[[Smilax febrifuga]]'', Equador sarsaparilla
 +
*''[[Smilax spruceana]]'', Pará sarsaparilla
 +
 +
China root, ''[[Smilax china]]'', imported from China, has to be added.
 +
 +
Their classification and nomenclature remain confuse, as sarsaparillas were designated in trade by their geographical origins, and they were gathered in the wild. As they no longer have any importance in international trade and pharmacopaeas, there is quite no recent synthesis.
 +
 +
=== Species eaten for their starchy rhizome ===
 +
Some species are eaten for their starchy rhizomes:
 +
*''[[Smilax bona-nox]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax glauca]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax pseudochina]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax tamnoides]]''
 +
 +
=== List of all species on Pl@ntUse ===
 +
<div style="column-count:3;-moz-column-count:3;-webkit-column-count:3">
 
*''[[Smilax anceps]]''
 
*''[[Smilax anceps]]''
 
*''[[Smilax aristolochiifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax aristolochiifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax aspera]]''
 
*''[[Smilax aspera]]''
 
*''[[Smilax auriculata]]''
 
*''[[Smilax auriculata]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax australis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax blumei]]''
 
*''[[Smilax blumei]]''
 
*''[[Smilax bona-nox]]''
 
*''[[Smilax bona-nox]]''
Line 28: Line 60:
 
*''[[Smilax discotis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax discotis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax domingensis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax domingensis]]''
*''[[Smilax zeylanica]]''
 
 
*''[[Smilax febrifuga]]''
 
*''[[Smilax febrifuga]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax ferox]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glabra]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glabra]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glauca]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glauca]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glaucochina]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glaucochina]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax glaucophylla]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glyciphylla]]''
 
*''[[Smilax glyciphylla]]''
 
*''[[Smilax goetzeana]]''
 
*''[[Smilax goetzeana]]''
 
*''[[Smilax havanensis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax havanensis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax herbacea]]''
 
*''[[Smilax herbacea]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax ilicifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax lanceifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax lanceifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax laurifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax laurifolia]]''
Line 50: Line 84:
 
*''[[Smilax nana]]''
 
*''[[Smilax nana]]''
 
*''[[Smilax nipponica]]''
 
*''[[Smilax nipponica]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax ocreata]]''
 
*''[[Smilax officinalis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax officinalis]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax ovalifolia]]''
 
*''[[Smilax papyracea]]''
 
*''[[Smilax papyracea]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax perfoliata]]''
 
*''[[Smilax pseudochina]]''
 
*''[[Smilax pseudochina]]''
 
*''[[Smilax regelii]]''
 
*''[[Smilax regelii]]''
Line 60: Line 97:
 
*''[[Smilax sieboldii]]''
 
*''[[Smilax sieboldii]]''
 
*''[[Smilax spinosa]]''
 
*''[[Smilax spinosa]]''
 +
*''[[Smilax spruceana]]''
 
*''[[Smilax stans]]''
 
*''[[Smilax stans]]''
 
*''[[Smilax tamnoides]]''
 
*''[[Smilax tamnoides]]''
 
*''[[Smilax verticalis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax verticalis]]''
 
*''[[Smilax zeylanica]]''
 
*''[[Smilax zeylanica]]''
 
+
</div>
Some species are eaten for their starchy roots:
+
*''[[Smilax bona-nox]]''
+
*''[[Smilax glauca]]''
+
*''[[Smilax pseudochina]]''
+
*''[[Smilax tamnoides]]''
+
  
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
 +
*Kubitzki K. (ed.), 1990- on going. ''The families and genera of vascular plants''. Berlin, Heidelberg, New-York, Springer. 3. ''Flowering plants. Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae)''. 1998. X-478 p.
  
 
== Links ==
 
== Links ==
Line 77: Line 111:
 
*[http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Smilax GRIN]
 
*[http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Smilax GRIN]
 
*[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/simplePlantNameSearch.do?find_wholeName=Smilax&amp;output_format=normal&amp;query_type=by_query&amp;back_page=query_ipni.html IPNI]
 
*[http://www.ipni.org/ipni/simplePlantNameSearch.do?find_wholeName=Smilax&amp;output_format=normal&amp;query_type=by_query&amp;back_page=query_ipni.html IPNI]
*[http://www.plantnames.unimelb.edu.au/Sorting/Smilax.html Multilingual Plant Name Database]
 
*[http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/nexus/Smilax_nex.html NewCrop Purdue]
 
 
*[http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Smilax Plant List]
 
*[http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Smilax Plant List]
*[http://tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Smilax Useful Tropical Plants Database]
 
 
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smilax Wikipedia]
 
*[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smilax Wikipedia]
  
 
[[Category:Smilax|*]]
 
[[Category:Smilax|*]]

Latest revision as of 12:00, 1 December 2014

Smilax L.

alt=Description of Smilax aspera, Sète 01.jpg picture.
Smilax aspera at Sète (France)
Order [[{{{order}}}]]
Family [[{{{family}}}]]



For a history of sarsaparillas, see the page Salsepareille (fr).


Biology

There are about 300 species, distributed in all the continents and climates.

  • All species are dioecious.
  • Most are prickly
  • Most have petiolar paired tendrils
  • Most are climbers, some being more bushy.
  • Leaves are alternate, petiolate, entire, acute.
  • Inflorescences are simple umbels or racemes of umbels.
  • Fruit is a berry


Classification

Smilax L. (1753)

Species

Species important against syphilis

'True' sarsaparillas came from the Americas. They are :

China root, Smilax china, imported from China, has to be added.

Their classification and nomenclature remain confuse, as sarsaparillas were designated in trade by their geographical origins, and they were gathered in the wild. As they no longer have any importance in international trade and pharmacopaeas, there is quite no recent synthesis.

Species eaten for their starchy rhizome

Some species are eaten for their starchy rhizomes:

List of all species on Pl@ntUse

References

  • Kubitzki K. (ed.), 1990- on going. The families and genera of vascular plants. Berlin, Heidelberg, New-York, Springer. 3. Flowering plants. Monocotyledons. Lilianae (except Orchidaceae). 1998. X-478 p.

Links