Flacourtia indica (PROSEA)

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Plant Resources of South-East Asia
List of species

Flacourtia indica (Burm.f.) Merr.

Family: Flacourtiaceae


  • Flacourtia ramontchi L'Hérit.

Vernacular names

  • Madagascar plum (En)
  • Indonesia: duri rukem (Bahasa Indonesia), saradan (Sundanese), baga (Java)
  • Malaysia: kerkup kecil
  • Philippines: bitolgol (Tagalog), bolong (Mangyan), palutan (Ibanag)
  • Cambodia: krâk hôp nhii
  • Thailand: takhop-pa (central), makwen-pa, makwen-nok (northern)
  • Vietnam: hông qûân, muôn quân, ân do.


Widespread and cultivated in Africa and Asia.


The fruit is edible but rather astringent. Infusions of the bark are used as a gargle, of the root to cure pneumonia, of the leaves to cure fever, coughs and diarrhoea.


  • Deciduous tree, up to 15 m tall, often spiny.
  • Leaves very variable, often narrowly obovate, up to 9 cm × 5 cm.
  • Fruit a globose to ellipsoid berry, about 1 cm in diameter, blackish-red, with 5-8 seeds.

Usually in seasonally dry, open, barren places, on limestone, clayey or sandy soils, up to 700 m altitude.

Selected sources

  • Morton, J.F., 1987. Fruits of warm climates. Creative Resource Systems Inc., Winterville, N.C., USA. 503 pp.
  • van Steenis, C.G.G.J. et al. (Editors), 1950-. Flora Malesiana. Series 1. Vol. 1, 4-10. Centre for Research and Development in Biology, Bogor, Indonesia, and Rijksherbarium, Leiden, the Netherlands. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.


P.C.M. Jansen, J. Jukema, L.P.A. Oyen, T.G. van Lingen